Tech

University of Arkansas researchers Marco Fielder and Arun Nair have conducted the first study of the combined nanoscale effects of water and mineral content on the deformation mechanisms and thermal properties of collagen, the essence of bone material.

The researchers also compared the results to the same properties of non-mineralized collagen reinforced with carbon nanotubes, which have shown promise as a reinforcing material for bio-composites. This research aids in the development of synthetic materials to mimic bone.

Many everyday foods--from yogurt and other fermented foods to fresh fruits and vegetables--contain live microorganisms. And although humans have consumed these safe and potentially beneficial bacteria in their daily diets for millennia, live microbes have received much less attention than other components of the diet. With a rising global awareness of the importance of gut health, many people believe intake of live microbes is health-promoting, but so far it has not been possible for experts to create a guideline on how many we should be consuming on a daily basis.

Researchers from Aarhus University have modelled the decarbonisation of the sector-coupled European energy system using very high-resolution data. The results are clear: To reach climate-neutrality by 2050 we need solar energy. And lots of it.

What's the cheapest, easiest way to honour the Paris Agreement of limiting the global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius? A clear and strong investment in wind and solar power. Starting now.

There are few moments in life as precious, as critical and as celebrated as baby's first breath. New research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine sheds light on the lifelong changes in breathing systems that occur precisely with that first breath - and may offer important insights into Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).

Light-powered processes from hydrogen production to air purification could see a boost in performance under ambient light thanks to a new material system that can directly convert visible light into ultraviolet light with an efficiency that doubles previous records.

What The Study Did: This survey study examines changes in the use of e-cigarettes by those 24 years old and younger during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Authors: Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, Ph.D., of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.27572)

Children grow taller in rural households where their mothers are supported to grow their own food - according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UEA).

The research, which looked at households in low- and middle-income countries, showed growing their own food helped mothers to prevent stunting, wasting and underweight in their children. Their children's food was more varied, meaning they had access to different classes of food nutrients.

A team of Johns Hopkins University researchers has developed a new software that could revolutionize how DNA is sequenced, making it far faster and less expensive to map anything from yeast genomes to cancer genes.

A new study further implicates low levels of the amino acid glycine in development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD. It also suggests addressing this might hold the key to a future treatment for the disease.

"We've uncovered a new metabolic pathway and potential novel treatment," says senior author Y. Eugene Chen, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of internal medicine and surgery, from the Michigan Medicine Frankel Cardiovascular Center. His team collaborated with researchers from the University of Michigan, Wayne State University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology.

New Curtin University research has found southern Australian long-finned pilot whales are able to mimic the calls of its natural predator and food rival - the killer whale, as a possible ploy to outsmart it.

The study is the first published research analysing the calls of long-finned pilot whales in the Southern Hemisphere, which were recorded in the Great Australian Bight, off WA and SA, between 2013 and 2017.

The Bolson tortoise (Bolson Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the largest land reptile in North America. It lives mainly in dry areas, in particular, in the Chihuahua desert in northern Mexico. In recent decades, its numbers have fallen by 50%, driving the International Union for Conservation of Nature to include it on its red list and it has been classified as endangered. Land tortoises are prone to suffering from a wide range of diseases that can deplete their numbers even more, therefore understanding potential pathogenic organisms could help in advancing conservation strategies.

Although the DNA and its double-helix are one of the most familiar molecules of our time, our knowledge of how cells control what genes they want to express still is rather limited. In order to create, for example, an enzyme, the information that's inscribed in our DNA about this enzyme needs to be transcribed and translated. To start this highly complex process special regulatory proteins called transcription factors (TFs) bind to specific DNA regions. That way, they can turn the expression of a gene on and off.

Researchers at Duke University have completed the most comprehensive study to date on how a class of persistent pollutants called semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are associated with the gut microbiome in human children.

With an increasing demand for a more sustainable alternative for high-rise construction, new research from UBC Okanagan, in collaboration with Western University and FPInnovations, points to timber as a sustainable and effective way to make tall, high-density, and renewable buildings.

Over a quarter of all proteins in a cell are found in the membrane, where they perform vital functions. To fulfil these roles, membrane proteins must be reliably transported from their site of production in the cell to their destination and correctly inserted into the target membrane. Researchers from the Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center (BZH) have succeeded in determining the three-dimensional structure of a molecular machine responsible for the correct placement of an important membrane protein family - the so-called "tail-anchored" membrane proteins, or TA proteins for short.