Earth

An international research team led by physicists from Collaborative Research Centre 1238, 'Control and Dynamics of Quantum Materials' at the University of Cologne has implemented a new variant of the basic double-slit experiment using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at the European Synchrotron ESRF in Grenoble. This new variant offers a deeper understanding of the electronic structure of solids. Writing in Science Advances, the research group have now presented their results under the title 'Resonant inelastic x-ray incarnation of Young's double-slit experiment'.

New research published in The Lancet Neurology journal suggests that frailty makes older adults more susceptible to Alzheimer's dementia, and moderates the effects of dementia-related brain changes on dementia symptoms. The findings suggest that frailty should be considered in clinical care and management of Alzheimer's dementia.

Genetic variants which prevent a neurotransmitter receptor from working properly have been implicated in the development of schizophrenia, according to research by the UCL Genetics Institute.

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a protein which normally carries signals between brain cells in response to a neurotransmitter called glutamate. Previous research has shown that symptoms of schizophrenia can be caused by drugs which block NMDAR or by antibodies which attack it.

LOGAN, UTAH, USA - Declines in native bee populations are widely reported, but can existing data really analyze these trends? In the Jan. 17, 2019, online edition of PLOS One, Utah State University and USDA researchers report findings about pollinator biodiversity in California's Pinnacles National Park derived from data collected from three separate surveys spanning 17 years. Their results documented 450 species of wild, native bees at Pinnacles, including 48 new to the area since 2002, and 95 detected at the site in the 1990s, but now missing.

A genetic study uncovers that birds maintain a dynamic coevolutionary relationship with their feather mites. The study has involved the participation of the Estación Biológica de Doñana from the CSIC, and its results have just been published in the journal Molecular Ecology.

Fluvial landscapes and the availability of water are of paramount importance for human safety and socioeconomic growth. Hydrologists know that identifying the boundaries of floodplains is often the first crucial step for any urban development or environmental protection plan.

Floodplain zoning is usually performed using complex hydrodynamic models, but modeling results can vary widely across methods and until now there has been no available unifying framework for global floodplain mapping.

ANN ARBOR--The cyanobacteria blooms that plague western Lake Erie each summer are both an unsightly nuisance and a potential public health hazard, producing liver toxins that can be harmful to humans and their pets.

But the toxins produced in cyanobacteria blooms may also have protective effects on sand-grain-sized lake animals that ingest them, much as the toxins in milkweed plants protect monarch butterflies from parasites, according to a new study from University of Michigan ecologists.

Scientists have made a step forward in understanding the evolution of human feet.

Unlike species such as chimpanzees, which have opposable digits on their feet, humans have evolved arched feet to enhance upright walking.

These arches were thought to be supported by plantar intrinsic muscles (PIMs) - but a study by the University of Queensland and the University of Exeter shows PIMs have a "minimal impact" on this.

Sea level rise puts coastal areas at the forefront of the impacts of climate change, but new research shows they face other climate-related threats as well. In a study published January 14 in Nature Communications, researchers report that the energy of ocean waves has been growing globally, and they found a direct association between ocean warming and the increase in wave energy.

Women who use certain types of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are at a higher risk of developing potentially life-threatening blood clots, new research has confirmed.

The study, undertaken by researchers at The University of Nottingham and published in the BMJ, found that the risk of developing blood clots was only increased for women using HRT in tablet form and was slightly higher for higher dosages.