Body

The financial burden on health systems would drastically increase if new European expert guidelines for cholesterol-lowering treatment were implemented, according to a new simulation study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, published in the European Heart Journal. The findings highlight an urgent need for cost-effectiveness analysis given the current cost of the proposed treatment for very high-risk patients, the researchers say.

U.S. women who take prescription opioids are no less likely to receive key cancer screenings when compared to women who are not prescribed opioids. Researchers at the University of California, Davis analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 53,982 women in the United States. Findings revealed that women who are prescribed opioids were more likely to receive breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings for the simple fact that they are frequent users of the health care system.

A new study from the University of Missouri concluded that a physician's decision not to intensify hypertension treatment is often a contextually appropriate choice. In two-thirds of cases where physicians did not change treatment for patients with hypertension, patients' blood pressure returned to normal in follow-up readings taken at home.

Patients taking warfarin to reduce the risk of stroke and pulmonary embolisms are often advised to take the medication in the evening. But does time of day really matter? A new study shows evidence that morning versus evening dosing has insignificant bearing on how long the drug provides the most benefit for preventing adverse health events. Two hundred and seventeen adults who regularly used warfarin in the evenings were randomized to the trial, with about half switching to morning medication use for seven months.

Due to Zika virus, more than 1,600 babies were born in Brazil with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, from September 2015 through April 2016. The epidemic took health professionals by surprise because the virus had been known since 1947 and was not linked to birth defects.

As scientists scrambled to figure out what was going on, one fact stood out: 83% of microcephaly cases came from northeastern Brazil, even though Zika infections were recorded nationwide.

In a study published in the American Heart Association scientific journal Circulation, Kaiser Permanente research scientists report a steady decline in heart attacks for both men and women enrolled in the health system from 2000 to 2014, although that rate of decline slowed among women in the last 5 years of the study.

INDIANAPOLIS -- An Indiana University cancer researcher has identified eight new genomic regions that increase a person's risk for skin cancer.

Exposing teeth to excessive fluoride alters calcium signaling, mitochondrial function, and gene expression in the cells forming tooth enamel--a novel explanation for how dental fluorosis, a condition caused by overexposure to fluoride during childhood, arises. The study, led by researchers at NYU College of Dentistry, is published in Science Signaling.

One of the frustrations with anti-cancer therapy is that no one drug fits all: Most work well in some people but have little effect in other patients with the same type of cancer. This is as true of the newer immunotherapy treatments as it is of older types of chemotherapy. Weizmann Institute of Science researchers have now identified new markers that can help predict which patients have a better chance for a positive response to immunotherapy treatments. Their findings were reported in Nature Communications.

CHICAGO: Researchers have examined new geriatric-specific characteristics that appear to raise the risk of elderly surgical patients having an unplanned hospital readmission within a month of initially leaving the hospital. The new study is published online as an "article in press" on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website in advance of print publication.

Breastfeeding affects infant growth and, researchers have found, helps prevent obesity, both in childhood and later in life. However, the components of breast milk responsible for these beneficial effects remain mostly a mystery.

Human milk is an elaborate blend of proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins, plus complex sugar molecules called human milk oligosaccharides, or HMOs. There are approximately 150 types of HMOs. Like thumb and tongue prints, the combination and concentration of HMOs is unique to each nursing mother.

DARIEN, IL -- A study published online as an accepted paper in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine found that later school start times were associated with a significant drop in vehicle accidents involving teen drivers.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa.--February 18, 2020 --A strong majority of Americans agree that organ and tissue donation for research contributes to health and medical breakthroughs and acknowledge significant shortfalls for donation. This is according to a new survey released today commissioned by Research!America in partnership with The National Disease Research Interchange (NDRI).

Researchers at the National Institutes of Health found evidence that specific immune cells may play a key role in the devastating effects of cerebral malaria, a severe form of malaria that mainly affects young children. The results, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, suggest that drugs targeting T cells may be effective in treating the disease. The study was supported by the NIH Intramural Research Program.

James "Mac" Hyman, the Evelyn and John G. Phillips Distinguished Professor in Mathematics at Tulane University, is using mathematical models to better understand and predict the spread of COVID-19 and to quantify the effectiveness of various efforts to stop it.

The goal of Hyman's work in "mathematical epidemiology" at the Tulane School of Science and Engineering, is to help the public health community understand and anticipate the spread of the infection and evaluate the potential effectiveness of different approaches for bringing it under control.