Body

What role does fate play when it comes to the 145,000 people diagnosed with cancer each year in Australia and 125,000 people in Vietnam?

Smoking, sun exposure, poor diet, alcohol consumption and inadequate exercise are proven risk factors for many types of cancer, but new research shows this message is not getting through to many patients.

ANN ARBOR, Mich. -- It's a highly anticipated rite of passage for many high schoolers - finally getting to drive your friends around.

But having teens who carpool with peers can be a nerve-wracking experience for many parents, with more than half in a new national poll saying their child has probably been in an unsafe situation as a passenger with a teen driver.

DUARTE, Calif. -- While the medical community agrees that immune cells inside a tumor leads to improved health outcome, for a subset of colorectal cancer patients, having too much of a good thing - too many immune cells - is a strong predictor of disease recurrence and reduced chances of survival, according to new research from City of Hope, a world-renowned independent research and treatment center for cancer, diabetes and other life-threatening diseases.

U.S. physicians are increasingly ordering medications for children for conditions that are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration, according to a Rutgers study.

The findings highlight the need for more education, research and policies addressing effective, safe pediatric drug prescribing.

A drug commonly used to manage symptoms of Alzheimer disease and other dementias -- donepezil -- is associated with a two-fold higher risk of hospital admission for rhabdomyolysis, a painful condition of muscle breakdown, compared with several other cholinesterase inhibitors, found a study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Dementia is a growing problem, with almost 10 million newly diagnosed cases every year around the world.

The way immune cells pick friends from foes can be described by a classic maths puzzle known as the "narrow escape problem".

That's a key finding arising from an international collaboration between biologists, immunologists and mathematicians, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The narrow escape problem is a framework often applied in cellular biology. It posits randomly moving particles trapped in a space with only a tiny exit, and calculates the average time required for each one to escape.

In experiments in mice, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have developed a way to successfully transplant certain protective brain cells without the need for lifelong anti-rejection drugs.

A report on the research, published Sept. 16 in the journal Brain, details the new approach, which selectively circumvents the immune response against foreign cells, allowing transplanted cells to survive, thrive and protect brain tissue long after stopping immune-suppressing drugs.

Out of the 536 women who were killed between 1992-2016 in Denmark, 300 were killed by their partner. This figure corresponds to 57 per cent of all homicides with female victims.

Obesity is linked to a nearly 6-fold increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), with high genetic risk and unfavorable lifestyle also increasing risk but to a much lesser extent. These are the conclusions of new research presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes in Barcelona, Spain (16-20 Sept), by Hermina Jakupovi?, University of Copenhagen, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Copenhagen, Denmark, and colleagues.

While overall, the numbers (prevalence) of people with type 2 diabetes continue to grow at an alarming rate, new research presented at this year's annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona, Spain (16-20 September) shows that recent studies suggest the rate at which new cases develop (incidence) may be falling. The study is by Professor Dianna Magliano and Professor Jonathan Shaw, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues.

A new study presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona, Spain (16-20 Sept) shows that men and women experience different comorbidities (other diseases at the same time) as having diabetes or prediabetes, as well as an unexpectedly high rate of prediabetes among children aged 6-10 years.

New research presented at this year's annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona, Spain (16-20 September) shows that specialist analysis of the lens in the eye can predict patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (also known as prediabetes, a condition that often leads to full blown of type 2 diabetes).

Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges in the world today since many common bacterial infections are developing resistance to the drugs once used to treat them, and new antibiotics aren't being developed fast enough to combat the problem.

Once primarily confined to health care settings, these resistant strains of bacteria are now commonly found in other places, especially marine environments. To date, few studies have looked at long-term trends in antibiotic resistance in pathogens isolated from wildlife populations.

Heart failure is an important potential complication of type 2 diabetes that occurs frequently and can lead to death or disability. Earlier this month, late-breaking trial results revealed that a new class of medications known as SGLT2 inhibitors may be helpful for patients with heart failure. These therapies may also be used in patients with diabetes to prevent heart failure from occurring in the first place. However, a way of accurately identifying which diabetes patients are most at risk for heart failure remains elusive.

Boston, MA -- Three-quarters of older adults with a serious illness visit the emergency department during the last six months of their lives. Many will be admitted to the hospital. Some will never leave. But only a minority of patients have a conversation with their physician about preferences for end-of-life care before it is too late in their disease course for their wishes to be expressed. Identifying patients at greatest risk of near-term death early enough to engage in these conversations could both improve patients' experiences and drive down health care costs.