Body

Malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium move ten times faster through the skin than immune cells, whose job it is to capture such pathogens. Heidelberg scientists have now found a reason why the parasite is faster than its counterpart. They did this by studying actin, a protein that is important to the structure and movement of cells and that is built differently in parasites and mammals.

BELLINGHAM, Washington, USA and CARDIFF, UK - A paper published today in the Journal of Medical Imaging - "DeepLesion: Automated mining of large-scale lesion annotations and universal lesion detection with deep learning," - announced the open availability of the largest CT lesion-image database accessible to the public.

A global review involving almost 20 million people has shown that having diabetes significantly raises the risk of developing cancer, and for women the risk is even higher.

Researchers from The George Institute for Global Health also found diabetes (type 1 and type 2) conferred an additional risk for women, compared to men, for leukaemia and cancers of the stomach, mouth and kidney, but less risk for liver cancer.

Diabetes is a risk factor for all-site cancer for both men and women, but the increased risk is higher in women than in men, according to a new article in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes).

HIV rates persist in high risk, marginalised populations and the Commission authors warn that a resurgence of the epidemic is likely as the largest generation of young people age into adolescence and adulthood.

Stalling of HIV funding in recent years endangers HIV control efforts.

Historic 'exceptionalism' of HIV treatment and care may no longer be sustainable; services will likely need to be part of wider health care supporting related diseases and conditions.

Congressional districts with the highest opioid prescribing rates are predominantly concentrated in the southeastern U.S., with other hotspots in Appalachia and the rural west, according to a new study led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. The study, the first to focus on opioid prescribing rates at the congressional district level, could help policy makers at the federal and state level better target intervention and prevention strategies.

The study will be published online July 19, 2018 in American Journal of Public Health.

Highlights

Among individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, those who were treated with tolvaptan for up to 11 years had a slower rate of kidney function decline compared with historical controls.

Annualized kidney function decline rates of tolvaptan-treated patients did not change during follow-up.

Philadelphia, July 19, 2018 - A new study featured in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics found that after drinking a small amount of caffeine, participants consumed 10 percent less at a breakfast buffet provided by researchers, but this effect did not persist throughout the day and had no impact on participants' perceptions of their appetites.

Bottom Line: Analysis of cancer death data from 2008-2014 in New York state revealed high cancer mortality rates among U.S.-born blacks and Puerto Ricans and relatively low cancer mortality rates among Hispanic South Americans and Asians.

Journal in Which the Study was Published: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Author: Paulo Pinheiro, MD, cancer epidemiologist at the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.

PITTSBURGH, July 19, 2018 - Postmenopausal factors may have an impact on the heart-protective qualities of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) - also known as 'good cholesterol' - according to a study led by researchers in the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.