Body

Sticky meshworks of DNA and proteins extruded by white blood cells called neutrophils act as the glue that binds together calcium and cholesterol crystals during gallstone formation, researchers in Germany report August 15 in the journal Immunity. Both genetic and pharmacological approaches that inhibited the formation of these so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) reduced the formation and growth of gallstones in mice.

What The Study Did: This study of 1,400 elementary and junior high school students in Tokyo estimated the rate of nearsightedness.

Authors: Toshihide Kurihara, M.D., Ph.D., and Kazuo Tsubota, M.D., Ph.D., of the Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo, are the corresponding authors.

(doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.3103)

What The Study Did: Sex disparities in ophthalmic research were analyzed in this study that evaluated the representation of female authorships in ophthalmologic journals from 2008 to 2018, with sex assigned according to first name.

Authors: Michael H. K. Bendels, M.D., Ph.D., of Goethe-University in Frankfurt, Germany, is the corresponding author.

(doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.3095)

A team of scientists at UC San Francisco and the National Institutes of Health have achieved another CRISPR first, one which may fundamentally alter the way scientists study brain diseases.

Out of the five physical senses, impairment in vision and hearing, especially simultaneously, may have the greatest impact on the health of older adults. These impairments are associated with poor health outcomes, such as limitations in physical function and activities of daily living (ADLs), social isolation, cognitive decline, depression, poor self-rated health (SRH), communication difficulties, and even mortality.

A breakthrough in monkey malaria research by two University of Otago scientists could help scientists diagnose and treat a relapsing form of human malaria.

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals with more than 200 million cases annually, particularly in Asia, the Pacific and South America. Symptoms include fever, tiredness, vomiting and headaches and in severe cases it can cause seizures, coma or death.

The first large-scale review into the health outcomes of people living with HIV has found that this group has an increased risk of contracting specific diseases and illnesses, some of which are more commonly associated with ageing.

The umbrella review, led by academics from Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) in Cambridge and the Medical University of Vienna, combined data from 20 separate observational studies and examined 55 different illnesses.

Beijing, 06 August 2019: the journal Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) has just published a new issue, Volume 4 Issue 2. This issue is a general issue with a wide variety of papers by authors from the US, Asia and Europe. This is also the first issue with new Editor in Chief Jianzeng Dong who will be working as joint Editor in Chief with C Richard Conti.

Papers in the issue are as follows:

REVIEW

Jayasheel O. Eshcol and Adnan K. Chhatriwalla.

Tiny silica bottles filled with medicine and a special temperature-sensitive material could be used for drug delivery to kill malignant cells only in certain parts of the body, according to a study published recently by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

The research team devised a way to create silica-based hollow spheres around 200 nanometers in size, each with one small hole in the surface that could enable the spheres to encapsulate a wide range of payloads to be released later at certain temperatures only.

A new Pharmacology Research & Perspectives study found no harm to newborns from opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) during pregnancy compared with no treatment.

An estimated 8 million children suffer blunt trauma annually, and while cervical spine injury (CSI) is serious, it is uncommon. Screening children suffering from blunt trauma for CSI risk factors could cut unnecessary computed tomography (CT) scans -- and radiation exposure -- by half, a prospective study of more than 4,000 children found.

SALT LAKE CITY-- A discovery by scientists at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) could lead researchers to a more effective way to treat pancreatic cancer. Their findings were published today in Developmental Cell.

BOSTON - Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers with limited treatment options. It typically comes with an especially poor prognosis due to its lack of symptoms until advanced stages and its ability to resist many anticancer therapies. Identifying genes involved in its development may lead to earlier diagnoses and improved treatments.

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 2, pp. 85-98 ; DOI https://doi.org/10.15212/CVIA.2017.0060, Jayasheel O. Eshcol and Adnan K. Chhatriwalla from Saint Luke's Hospital Mid America Heart Institute, and University of Missouri-Kansas City, School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USA consider selective coronary angiography following cardiac arrest.

What to Do with Epicardial Coronary Artery Abnormalities That do not Result in Myocardial Ischemia?

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications volume 4, issue 2, pp. 109-111 ; DOI https://doi.org/10.15212/CVIA.2017.0067 C. Richard Conti from the University of Florida Medical School, Gainesville, FL, USA considers epicardial coronary artery abnormalities that do not result in myocardial ischemia.