Body

Decisions to prescribe children drugs to treat chronic pain are not guided by sufficient, high quality evidence, according to an important new study published today (Wednesday 26 June 2019).

State policies requiring children to attend additional years of school may result in a reduced risk for heart disease and improvements in several cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco and Stanford University.

Childhood cancer is a rare occurrence in the overall population but may be somewhat more frequent in children born with birth defects. To better understand the link between cancer risk and birth defects, a collaborative team of scientists led by Baylor College of Medicine has assembled the largest study to date to evaluate cancer risk in children with birth defects. The study appears in JAMA Oncology.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded health insurance coverage, including eligibility for Medicaid, the public insurance program for low-income Americans. Under the ACA, states can decide whether to expand eligibility for Medicaid coverage. As of earlier this year, 36 states and the District of Columbia had adopted Medicaid expansion, and other states are still debating whether to do so.

New research from the University of Alabama at Birmingham provides evidence, for the first time, for physicians to continue using the spirometry criteria set by major respiratory societies for the diagnosis of airflow obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

ANAHEIM, CA (Embargoed until 10:30 a.m. PDT, Tuesday, June 25, 2019) - Research presented at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNM MI) shows preliminary evidence that tobacco smokers may have reduced neuroimmune function compared with nonsmokers.

CLEVELAND -- Common antidepressants interact with the opioid pain medication tramadol to make it less effective for pain relief, according to a study from University Hospitals (UH). These findings have important implications for the opioid epidemic, suggesting that some patients suspected of drug-seeking may in fact be under-medicated and just are seeking more effective pain relief. They also could help explain why some people exceed the prescribed dose of tramadol, increasing their risk of addiction.

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been shown to be safe and effective for patients with grade 3 (G3) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), according to research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's (SNMMI) 66th Annual Meeting.

OAK BROOK, Ill. - When used with a common heart scan, machine learning (ML), a type of artificial intelligence, does better than conventional risk models at predicting heart attacks and other cardiac events, according to a study published in the journal Radiology.

Vienna, 25 June 2019: Ovarian reserve, a term widely adopted to reflect the number of resting follicles in the ovary and thus a marker of potential female fertility, has been found in a large-scale study to be adversely affected by high levels of air pollution.

The thymus is the powerhouse producing the immune system's T cells, which combat infection in our body. Yet this vital organ is one of the first to diminish in function as we age, resulting in a gradual loss of T cell production and eventually increased susceptibility to infections and cancer in the elderly.

Researchers from the University of Seville, the Seville Biomedicine Institute and Lund University (Sweden) have been able to describe how the body responds to a component present in the brain in Alzheimer's patients. This discovery opens new pharmacological possibilities for the control of brain inflammation and its harmful effects.

The identification of specific neural signatures can help develop specific biomarkers and personalized treatments for Huntington's disease.

Research results underscore the value of multimodal approaches in the characterization of heterogeneous patterns of neurodegeneration

Researchers from Lund University, together with the Roche pharmaceutical company, have used a method to develop a new blood marker capable of detecting whether or not a person has Alzheimer's disease. If the method is approved for clinical use, the researchers hope eventually to see it used as a diagnostic tool in primary healthcare. This autumn, they will start a trial in primary healthcare to test the technique.

Sclerostin is a protein produced by osteocytes in the bone that inhibits bone formation. A recent analysis of results from a clinical trial reveals the beneficial effects of romosozumab, an antibody therapy that targets sclerostin, on bone tissue in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The findings are published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.