Body

PHOENIX - A University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix research team has developed a blood self-collection device to quickly estimate a person's exposure to radiation in the event of a nuclear accident or attack.

Led by Jian Gu, PhD, and scientists at the medical school's Center for Applied NanoBioscience and Medicine (ANBM), the study reports development of a system for packaging critical components of a traditional blood-collection kit to create an integrated fingerstick blood collector for radiation countermeasures.

CHICAGO --- Northwestern Medicine scientists have used patient-derived neurons to develop and test a new strategy to treat Parkinson's disease by mitigating the effects of harmful genetic mutations, as detailed in a study published today (Oct. 16) in Science Translational Medicine.

Fatty liver disease is contributing to an increase in liver cancer and basic scientists at The University of Texas Health Science at Houston (UTHealth) have new insight as to why.

In the journal Cancer Research, the investigators report that in mouse models, excess fat impairs the ability of a tumor-suppressing protein named HNF4α to do its job.

Research led by the Universities of Birmingham and Manchester has made a connection between the way baby wallabies produce male hormones and how some human girls are born with genitalia that resemble those of a boy.

The research, published in PNAS and supported by the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council, shows that an alternative pathway to the production of active male hormones - previously identified in the tammar wallaby pouch young - is present and active during human fetal development.

A study by Stanford University School of Medicine investigators may help explain why even people benefiting from medications for their epilepsy often continue to experience bouts of difficulty thinking, perceiving and remembering clearly.

The cause is a pathological buzz of electrical brain activity that interferes with the brain's normal activity. The researchers said that certain medications or implantable devices could be improved to alleviate these cognitive deficits.

A paper describing the findings will be published Oct. 16 in Science Translational Medicine.

The UCSF scientists who identified the two known human genes that promote "natural short sleep" -- nightly sleep that lasts just four to six hours but leaves people feeling well-rested -- have now discovered a third, and it's also the first gene that's ever been shown to prevent the memory deficits that normally accompany sleep deprivation. The researchers believe this latest discovery may one day lead to a druggable target for therapies that improve sleep and treat sleep disorders.

Researchers have discovered a mechanism in rats that links cigarette smoking and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Scientists found a crucial role for a diabetes-associated gene, called transcription factor 7-like 2 (Tcf7l2), in regulating the response to nicotine in the brain. Tcf712, which regulates the expression of genes in the pancreas and liver that determine blood glucose levels, also regulates the response of cells in the habenula, an area of the brain that controls reward and aversion behaviors, to nicotine.

Researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have discovered a circuit in rats that links cigarette smoking and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to a study featured on the cover of the October 17 issue of Nature.

What The Study Did: Associations between risk of suicide and medications widely used in the management of high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease, heart failure and diabetes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers) were examined in this observational study.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

What The Study Did: The risk of developing and dying of cancer among people with psoriasis was examined in this study (called a systematic review and meta-analysis) that combined the results of 58 observational studies.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

Authors: Alex M. Trafford, M.Sc., of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, is the corresponding author.

(doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.3056)

What The Study Did: Bulimia nervosa (binge eating followed by purging) is a common psychiatric disease in women. This observational study examined the association between bulimia nervosa and the risk of long-term cardiovascular disease and death during 12 years of follow-up using hospitalization data for a large group of women in Canada.

To access the embargoed study:  Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

What The Study Did: National data were used to examine changes from 2000 to 2015 in premature death (ages 25 to 64) from cardiovascular disease in the United States.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

Authors: Yingxi Chen, M.D., Ph.D., of the National Cancer Institute in Rockville, Maryland, is the corresponding author.

(doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2019.3891)

What The Study Did: A survey study of nearly 1,000 patients who underwent common outpatient surgical procedures reports no significant change in ratings for how satisfied patients were with surgeons when surgeons prescribed fewer opioids.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

Authors: Richard J. Barth Jr., M.D., of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire, is the corresponding author.

ANN ARBOR--When cells in our bodies need to move--to attack an infection or heal a wound, for example--cellular proteins send and receive a cascade of signals that directs the cells to the right place at the right time. It's a process cancer cells can hijack to spread to new tissues and organs.

A new study examining the role that star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes play in Huntington's disease has identified a potential strategy that may halt the disease and repair some of the damage it causes.

Astrocytes interact with and support neurons, or nerve cells, and other brain cells. Although astrocytes outnumber neurons, little is known about how they interact with synapses, the junctions between neurons that enable them to communicate and convey messages to each other.