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BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - Research by Kai Jiao, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and in Germany has yielded fundamental insights into the causes of severe birth defects known as CHARGE syndrome cases. These congenital birth defects include severe and life-threatening heart malformations.

ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Organ procurement organizations are a critical component in organ transplantation in the United States. But, what makes an organ procurement organization high performing and obtaining much needed organs to those awaiting a transplantation?

In a new paper, published in JAMA Surgery, researchers found the metrics used to rank organ procurement organizations don't create an even playing field for organizations, and lead to inaccuracies.

ST. LOUIS - Research from Saint Louis University finds that among patients at risk for opioid misuse, the odds of receiving a schedule II opioid for non-cancer pain were similar to those not at risk, despite new prescribing guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).

The study, "Comparison of Opioids Prescribed for Patients at Risk for Opioid Misuse Before and After CDC Opioid Prescribing Guidelines," by Jeffrey Scherrer, Ph.D., a professor in Family and Community Medicine at SLU, was published online Dec. 2 in JAMA Network Open.

Children engrossed in popular kids' TV programmes such as Peppa Pig, or films like Toy Story or Frozen, are exposed to up to nine incidents of pain for every hour of TV watched, according to new research from psychologists.

A new study - published today [Wednesday 2 December 2020] in the international journal Pain from researchers at the universities of Bath (UK) and Calgary (Canada) - analysed how characters' experiences of pain were depicted across different media aimed at 4 to 6-year olds.

Cancer cells spread by switching on and off abilities to sense their surroundings, move, hide and grow new tumours, a new study has found.

This sensitivity to their surroundings is the key ability that makes small numbers of cancer cells better at spreading than other cells in a tumour, scientists at the University of Reading discovered.

The multicentre study, in which Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitätsklinikum Bergmannsheil, Hospital of Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB), played a leading role, was published in the Journal of Internal Medicine on 12 November 2020.

Serious dysfunction of the heart muscle

DALLAS, Dec. 2, 2020 -- Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults who may benefit from cholesterol-lowering medicine to prevent cardiovascular disease are less likely than non-LGB adults to take them, according to new research published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association, an open access journal of the American Heart Association.

Bottom Line: Among patients with lung cancer from Latin America, genomic and ancestry analyses revealed that Native American ancestry was associated with increased mutations in the EGFR gene, independent of smoking status.

Journal in Which the Study was Published: Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

SAN ANTONIO, Texas, USA - In a new paper, researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UT Health San Antonio) report brain chemistry that may contribute to why drinkers have difficulty paying attention while under the influence.

The work is funded by generous support from the Robert J. Kleberg, Jr. and Helen C. Kleberg Foundation and by grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute of Mental Health. Findings were published Dec. 2 in Nature Communications.

Differences in the immune systems and better blood vessel health were among the factors protecting children from severe COVID-19, according to a new review.

A huge body of global COVID-19 literature was reviewed by experts at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI), the University of Melbourne and the University of Fribourg and published in the Archives of Disease in Childhood to unravel the reasons for age-related differences in COVID-19 severity and symptoms.

The role of a protein in detecting the common cold virus and kickstarting an immune response to fight infection has been uncovered by a team of scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore), the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) and the National University of Singapore.

Tsukuba, Japan - Occasionally, following a transplant procedure, the donor's immune cells recognize the recipient's tissues as foreign and trigger a multisystem disorder called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Occurring commonly after bone marrow or stem cell transplants performed to treat some blood cancers, GVHD may even follow solid organ transplants and is, in essence, the reverse of transplant rejection.

A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data found that more than 40% of U.S. adults with overweight and nearly 10% with obesity did not consider themselves to be overweight. This trend has increased over the last two decades and was especially true of non-Hispanic Blacks and persons with low socioeconomic status. The findings are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Virologists at the Rega Institute at KU Leuven (Belgium) have developed a vaccine candidate against Covid-19 based on the yellow fever vaccine, which as a result also works against yellow fever. Results published today in Nature show that the vaccine protects hamsters from infection with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus after a single dose. The vaccine is also effective in monkeys. The team is currently preparing for clinical trials.

Reston, VA--A novel ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) study has pooled data from multiple sites to effectively visualize neuroinflammation, which is key to developing drugs to treat the disease. Pooling data acquired from different scanners, different neuroinflammation positron emission tomography (PET) markers and different sites enhanced researchers' ability to detect neuroinflammation in ALS patients. This research was published in the November issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.