Body

(New York, NY - August 14, 2019) -- Early-life exposure to the mineral manganese disrupts the way different areas of the brain involved in cognitive ability and motor control connect in teenagers, Mount Sinai researchers report in a study published in PLOS ONE in August.

New Haven, Conn. -- Giving children an additional dose of rotavirus vaccine when they are nine months old would provide only a modest improvement in the vaccine's effectiveness in low-income countries concerned about waning protection against the highly contagious disease, according to a new study led by the Yale School of Public Health and the Institute of Infection and Global Health at the University of Liverpool.

A study led by researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago has found that combining acyclovir -- a commonly prescribed topical herpes medication -- with particles of activated carbon improves efficacy of the drug. This new approach allows for less frequent dosing and overall course of treatment while providing some protection from infection by the virus as well, opening up the possibility of using the combination in prophylactic products.

The findings of the study are reported in the journal Science Advances.

DES PLAINES, IL -- The results of a retrospective study on a pay-for-performance (P4P) program implemented in Vancouver, British Columbia suggest mixed consequences -- it can reduce access block for admitted patients but may also lead to discharges associated with return visits and admissions. The study is published in the August 2019 issue of Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM), a journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM).

Abnormal breast growth in young girls is linked to lavender oil exposure, according to a recent study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

FINDINGS

Cancer that has spread to the central nervous system is notoriously difficult to treat. Now, UCLA researchers have developed a drug delivery system that breaks through the blood-brain barrier in order to reach and treat cancer that has spread to the central nervous system.

In research conducted in mice, a single dose of cancer drugs in a nanoscale capsule developed by the scientists eliminated all B-cell lymphoma that had metastasized to the animals' central nervous system.

BACKGROUND

For children with Ewing sarcoma, an aggressive bone cancer, a combination of two different classes of drugs may work synergistically to turn off the drivers fueling this disease, finds a new study. The combination appears to be more powerful than relying on either treatment alone.

How many stars are there in the observable universe? It was once deemed an impossible question, but astronomers have gleaned an answer--about one billion trillion of them.

Now, scientists at Harvard Medical School and Joslin Diabetes Center have embarked on what could be a similarly daunting quest: How many genes are there in the human microbiome?

In a study published Aug. 14 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, a team of microbiologists and bioinformaticians offer a first glimpse of the array of genes that make up the bacterial universe residing in each of us.

Bottom Line: This observational study examined whether daytime and nighttime blood pressure (BP) levels measured outside a clinical setting are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk of death. Blood pressure levels measured at a clinic may not accurately reflect levels that a person experiences at home, work or while asleep.

Bottom Line: Whether the experience of being a refugee increases the probability of developing a mental disorder such as schizophrenia was the focus of this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis that combined the results of nine studies involving 540,000 refugees in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Canada. The relative risk of refugees developing nonaffective psychosis (which includes several mental disorders such as schizophrenia) was compared with the risk of natives of the host country and nonrefugee migrants there.

What The Study Did: This observational study examines changes in the age distribution of new obesity-associated cancer cases and nonobesity-associated cancer cases from 2000 to 2016 by sex and race/ethnicity.

Authors: Siran M. Koroukian, Ph.D., of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, is the corresponding author.

(doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9261)

KAIST medical scientists have developed an advanced method for perfectly detecting low-level somatic mutation in patients with intractable epilepsy. Their study showed that deep sequencing replicates of major focal epilepsy genes accurately and efficiently identified low-level somatic mutations in intractable epilepsy.

According to the study, their diagnostic method could increase the accuracy up to 100%, unlike the conventional sequencing analysis, which stands at about 30% accuracy. This work was published in Acta Neuropathologica.

An extensive study has confirmed that the risk of developing coeliac disease is connected to the amount of gluten children consume. The new study is observational and therefore does not prove causation; however, it is the most comprehensive of its kind to date. The results are presented in the prestigious journal JAMA.

In total, 6 600 children at increased risk of developing coeliac disease were followed from birth until the age of five, in Sweden, Finland, Germany and the USA.

This novel open-source computational framework, combined with targeted high-coverage sequencing data promotes the R&D of Non-Invasive Prenatal genetic Screening (NIPT) to make it completely affordable and routinely applicable in clinics. The developed data analysis method uses high-coverage sequencing data from targeted genomic regions to detect fetal trisomies and the parental origin of the trisomic chromosome from the mother's blood sample in the first trimester of pregnancy.

First study to examine the association of physical activity with patient survival in advanced, metastatic colorectal cancer

Even low-intensity exercise was associated with a reduction in progression free survival

BOSTON - Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who engaged in moderate exercise while undergoing chemotherapy tended to have delayed progression of their disease and fewer severe side effects from treatment, according to the results of a new study.