Body

In a newly published experimental study, the consumption of dietary fibre from oat and rye brans supported the growth of beneficial gut microbiota, which in turn ameliorated cholesterol metabolism, enhanced gut barrier function and reduced hepatic inflammation. In addition, diets enriched with oat or rye bran were shown to attenuate weight gain. The effects of oat and rye were partly different, but both were beneficial for health.

Researchers at the University of Tasmania's Menzies Institute for Medical Research and the School of Medicine have added an arsenal of new tools (video link) to their repertoire for fighting the insidious Devil Facial Tumour Disease.

A paper published today in the prestigious Science Advances journal outlines new cost-effective technology that can be used for advanced immunology studies in Tasmanian devils.

In sufferers of Parkinson's disease, clumps of α-synuclein (alpha-synuclein), sometimes known as the 'Parkinson's protein', are found in the brain. These destroy cell membranes, eventually resulting in cell death. Now, a new method developed at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, reveals how the composition of cell membranes seems to be a decisive factor for how small quantities of α-synuclein cause damage.

Hunger-Blocking Hormone Reverses Opioid Overdose In Mice

Media Contact: Vanessa McMains, vmcmain1@jhmi.edu

Northwestern University researchers have cracked one of the secrets of tooth decay. In a new study of human enamel, the materials scientists are the first to identify a small number of impurity atoms that may contribute to the enamel's strength but also make the material more soluble. They also are the first to determine the spatial distribution of the impurities with atomic-scale resolution.

Researchers at Stanford University are developing a new insulin formulation that begins to take effect almost immediately upon injection, potentially working four times as fast as current commercial fast-acting insulin formulations.

A new, ultra-rapid formulation of insulin reached peak activity in pigs with diabetes about twice as fast as a commercially available option, according to new research. The formulation, which peaked in as little as 9 minutes, could improve quality-of-life for patients with diabetes by allowing them to more quickly manage their blood sugar levels during mealtimes. Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic conditions, affecting about 40 million people around the world.

What The Study Did: This observational study looked at changes from 2007 to 2016 in the proportion of U.S. adults who screened positive for depression and received treatment.

Authors: Taeho Greg Rhee, Ph.D., M.S.W., of the University of Connecticut in Farmington, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1818)

What The Study Did: The clinical findings of four children who experienced neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 are presented in this case series.

Authors: Yael Hacohen, M.D., Ph.D., of University College London, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2687)

Patient and public voices were "regrettably" absent in the early stages of the covid-19 pandemic, but must now move centre stage, argue experts in The BMJ today.

Patient Partnership Editor Tessa Richards, Patient Editor Henry Sowcroft, and the members of The BMJs International Patient and Public Advisory Panel, acknowledge that decisions had to be made fast, but say "policy makers' choice of expert advisers excluded those with expertise rooted in lived experience - patients, families, and frontline health and social care professionals."

Adults who meet recommended weekly physical activity levels have a lower risk of death, finds a US study published by The BMJ today.

The survival benefits are similar regardless of intensity of activity, although they are slightly higher for vigorous than light to moderate activity, the findings show.

Major weaknesses exist in the evidence base for covid-19 antibody tests, finds a review of the latest research published by The BMJ today.

The evidence is particularly weak for point-of-care tests (performed directly with a patient, outside of a laboratory) and does not support their continued use, say the researchers.

What The Study Did: This online survey study investigated how common were symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia and acute stress and potential risk factors in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Authors: Yan-Ping Bao, Ph.D., and Lin Lu, M.D., Ph.D., of Peking University in Beijing, are the corresponding authors.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14053)

Leading UK academic scientists are urging the government to introduce a statutory levy on gambling firms to deliver reductions in gambling harms.

In an open letter to the culture minister, Oliver Dowden and the health secretary, Matt Hancock, published by The BMJ today, they warn that the current voluntary system gives the industry too much influence on how the money is spent.

According to the researchers, the study shows that spending cuts to alcohol services represent a false economy since decreases in expenditure are linked to increased hospital admissions which inevitably are costly to society and the economy.