Diamonds, those precious, sparkling jewels, are known as the hardest materials on Earth. They are a high-pressure form of carbon and found deep in the ground.

While diamonds are commonly thought of as hard and stable, carbon from about 100 miles beneath the African plate is being brought to shallower levels where diamond will become unstable. Molten rock (magma) brings the excess carbon towards the surface, and earthquakes open cracks that allow the carbon to be released into the air as carbon dioxide.

AUSTIN, Texas -- When the novel coronavirus began spreading during the early months of 2020, it put kinks in multinational production chains -- first in China and then around the globe. But it didn't have to happen that way, according to Francisco Polidoro, associate management professor at the McCombs School of Business at The University of Texas at Austin.

The international First-line Radiosurgery for Small-Cell Lung Cancer (FIRE-SCLC) analysis led by University of Colorado Cancer Center researchers and published today in JAMA Oncology details clinical outcomes for 710 patients with brain metastases from small cell lung cancer treated with first-line stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), without prior treatment with whole-brain radiation (WBRT) or prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI).

A group of Japanese scientists has developed an ultrastable, selective catalyst to dehydrogenate propane - an essential process to produce the key petrochemical substance of propylene - without deactivation, even at temperatures of more than 600°C.

Palaeontologists from St Petersburg University have been the first to study in detail the structure of the brain and blood vessels in the skull of the ankylosaur Bissektipelta archibaldi. It was a herbivorous dinosaur somewhat similar in appearance to a modern armadillo. The first three-dimensional computer reconstruction of a dinosaur endocast made in Russia - a digital cast of its braincase - was of help to the scientists.

LA JOLLA--Every year, more than 68,000 people end up with a clinical case of Japanese encephalitis. One in four of these patients will die. The mosquito-borne virus, which is most common in Southeast Asia, also causes severe neurological damage and psychiatric disorders.

There is no cure for Japanese encephalitis, but there are effective vaccines against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The problem is that JEV's range is spreading, and more and more people at risk of the disease also live in areas where viruses like Zika are prevalent.

Tsukuba, Japan - Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, a type of kidney disease that is accompanied by massive urinary protein loss and that may progress to end-stage renal disease. In a new study, researchers from the University of Tsukuba uncovered a new protective role of the protein MafB in FSGS.

A study by Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) expands the understanding of the molecular pathways that control T cell function and survival and how it relates to declining T cell immunity in the elderly.

The findings, published in Nature Communications, led by Monash BDI's Professor Nicole La Gruta and Dr Kylie Quinn (formerly of Monash University BDI, now Vice-Chancellor's Research Fellow at RMIT University), outline that the increased metabolism of T cells observed with advanced age was an indication that they were working harder merely to survive.

When we think of wrinkles, we usually envision the lines etched into our skin, for some an unwelcome reality and for others a proud sign of a life well-lived. In material science, wrinkles can also be either wanted or unwanted. But the physical factors that cause wrinkling to occur are not yet fully understood.

Researchers at Kumamoto University in Japan have discovered that uric acid, an antioxidant, protects against declining lung function from age or lung disease, especially in women. High uric acid levels can cause health problems such as gout and renal damage, but this study showed that it protects against lung function decline in females. The function of uric acid and other antioxidants in the lungs, as well as gender differences, will likely be considered for prospective management of lung diseases.