Japanese scientists are shedding new light on the importance of light-sensing cells in the retina that process visual information. The researchers isolated the functions of melanopsin cells and demonstrated their crucial role in the perception of visual environment. This ushers in a new understanding of the biology of the eye and how visual information is processed.

The findings could contribute to more effective therapies for complications that relate to the eye. They can also serve as the basis for developing lighting and display systems.

Enteroviruses are one of the most common human pathogens leading to high number of acute and chronic infections worldwide. The physiological events leading to successful enterovirus infection are still poorly understood. Researchers at the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä and at the University of Helsinki have found significant new information concerning the role of Albumin and ions in host cell vesicles that promote genome release and efficient infection. The results may yield targets for therapeutic development.

OKLAHOMA CITY - In the field of addiction research, one question looms large: Why do some people face a higher risk than others for alcoholism and drug abuse?
A researcher at the OU College of Medicine, William R. Lovallo, Ph.D., recently published one of the field's few studies focused on how a person's genes contribute to addiction. Lovallo's research showed that a tiny genetic mutation can put people at higher risk for alcohol or drug addiction. His research was published in the world's leading journal on alcoholism, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.

In the battle of the sexes, males appear to have the innovative edge--from a genetic standpoint, at least. Scientists are finding that the testes are more than mere factories for sperm; these organs also serve as hotspots for the emergence of new genes, the raw material for the evolution of species.

Excess heat given off by smartphones, laptops and other electronic devices can be annoying, but beyond that it contributes to malfunctions and, in extreme cases, can even cause lithium batteries to explode.

To guard against such ills, engineers often insert glass, plastic or even layers of air as insulation to prevent heat-generating components like microprocessors from causing damage or discomforting users.

Berkeley -- Needle pricks not your thing? A team of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, is developing wearable skin sensors that can detect what's in your sweat.

They hope that one day, monitoring perspiration could bypass the need for more invasive procedures like blood draws, and provide real-time updates on health problems such as dehydration or fatigue.

As the microelectronic industry is now shifting toward wearable electronic gadgets and electronic (e-)textiles, the comprising electronic materials, such as ferroelectrics, should be integrated with our clothes. Nylons, a family of synthetic polymers, were first introduced in the 1920s' for women's stockings and are nowadays among the most widely used synthetic fibers in textiles. They consist of a long chain of repeated molecular units, i.e. polymers, where each repeat unit contains a specific arrangement of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen with carbon atoms.

One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. In superconductors, electrons move freely through the material--there is zero resistance when it's cooled below its critical temperature. However, the cuprates simultaneously exhibit superconductivity and charge order in patterns of alternating stripes. This is paradoxical in that charge order describes areas of confined electrons. How can superconductivity and charge order coexist?

Tropical Storm Krosa continued to erode after it moved into the Sea of Japan and satellite data showed it as a ragged and shapeless storm on August 16, 2019.

The center of Tropical Storm Krosa's circulation was difficult to pinpoint in the Aug. 16 visible image from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the NOAA-20 satellite. NOAA-20 passed over the Sea of Japan at 12:12 a.m. EDT (0412 UTC) and the VIIRS instrument provided a view of the shapeless storm. The bulk of clouds associated with the storm was north of the center.

JUPITER, Fla.--Aug. 16, 2019--A team at Scripps Research in Florida has discovered a biological system that manages cells' response to opioid drug exposure. The unexpected discovery offers new ideas for improving the safety of the one of the most effective, and most abused, group of pain medications.