In the paper, a C6v-symmetric structure is thoroughly studied in which the valley Hall effect plays an important role when the Dirac cone at the corner point of the Brillouin region is opened, accompanied by a new band gap, by changing the symmetry of the structure from C6v into C3v. Further, the researchers analyze the acoustic wave propagation in two types of topological states in the range of this new band gap.

HAMILTON, ON, Dec. 13, 2019 - A team of researchers at McMaster University has developed a self-cleaning surface that can repel all forms of bacteria, preventing the transfer of antibiotic-resistant superbugs and other dangerous bacteria in settings ranging from hospitals to kitchens.

The new plastic surface - a treated form of conventional transparent wrap - can be shrink-wrapped onto door handles, railings, IV stands and other surfaces that can be magnets for bacteria such as MRSA and C. difficile.

Studies have shown that perinatal exposure of rats and mice to common flame retardants found in household items permanently reprograms liver metabolism, often leading later in life to insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

The manipulation of rivers in California is jeopardizing the resilience of native Chinook salmon. It compresses their migration timing to the point that they crowd their habitats. They may miss the best window for entering the ocean and growing into adults, new research shows.

The good news is that even small steps to improve their access to habitat and restore natural flows could boost their survival.

Researchers have taken a critical step toward developing a non-invasive nuclear medicine technique that can predict the effectiveness of therapy for cancerous tumors, allowing for personalized, precision treatment. The study is featured in the December issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Microbes living in the rectum could make a difference to the effectiveness of experimental HIV vaccines, according to researchers at the University of California, Davis. The work is published Dec. 11 in the journal mSphere.

Evidence from human and animal studies with other vaccines suggests that Lactobacillus supplements can boost production of antibodies, while treatment with antibiotics can hamper beneficial immune responses, said Smita Iyer, assistant professor at the UC Davis Center for Immunology and Infectious Diseases and School of Veterinary Medicine.

A collaboration between researchers in Japan, the USA, and Russia has found a hot spot in Earth's radiation belt where killer electrons, which can cause serious anomalies in satellites, form. The finding, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, could help scientists more accurately forecast when these killer (relativistic) electrons will form.

Pullman, Wash. - When people learn that a charitable contribution they earmarked for a specific project was used for another cause, they feel betrayed - and often punish the charity, new research from Washington State University indicates.

Those donors were less likely to give money to the charity in the future or do volunteer work for the organization. They also were more likely to say negative things about the charity, according to the research published in the January 2020 issue of the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research and available online.

Control of the polarization of light is a key feature for displays, optical data storage, optical quantum information, and chirality sensing. In particular, the direct emission of circularly polarized (CP) light has attracted great interest because of the enhanced performance of displays such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and light sources for characterizing the secondary structure of proteins.

At a prehistoric archaeological site in Turkey, researchers have discovered two 8,500-year-old human teeth, which had been used as pendants in a necklace or bracelet. Researchers have never documented this practice before in the prehistoric Near East, and the rarity of the find suggests that the human teeth were imbued with profound symbolic meaning for the people who wore them.