Astronomers have caught a rare glimpse of a rapidly fading shroud of gas around an aging star. Archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope reveal that the nebula Hen 3-1357, nicknamed the Stingray nebula, has faded precipitously over just the past two decades. Witnessing such a swift rate of change in a planetary nebula is exceedingly without precedent, researchers say.

For a caterpillar, a green leaf can make a nice meal. But to the plant itself, it's an attack. And very hungry caterpillars can do a lot of damage as they eat their way through life.

Plants can fight back, unleashing an array of chemical defenses to discourage wayward foragers -- from releasing chemicals that attract caterpillar predators to secreting compounds that make the plant taste so foul that desperate caterpillars resort to cannibalism. But scientists know little about how plants detect these attacks and marshal defenses.

University of Arkansas researchers Marco Fielder and Arun Nair have conducted the first study of the combined nanoscale effects of water and mineral content on the deformation mechanisms and thermal properties of collagen, the essence of bone material.

The researchers also compared the results to the same properties of non-mineralized collagen reinforced with carbon nanotubes, which have shown promise as a reinforcing material for bio-composites. This research aids in the development of synthetic materials to mimic bone.

Researchers from Aarhus University have modelled the decarbonisation of the sector-coupled European energy system using very high-resolution data. The results are clear: To reach climate-neutrality by 2050 we need solar energy. And lots of it.

What's the cheapest, easiest way to honour the Paris Agreement of limiting the global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius? A clear and strong investment in wind and solar power. Starting now.

There are few moments in life as precious, as critical and as celebrated as baby's first breath. New research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine sheds light on the lifelong changes in breathing systems that occur precisely with that first breath - and may offer important insights into Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).

Light-powered processes from hydrogen production to air purification could see a boost in performance under ambient light thanks to a new material system that can directly convert visible light into ultraviolet light with an efficiency that doubles previous records.

Primates process visual information in front of their eyes, similar to pixels in a digital camera, using small computing units located in the visual cortex of their brains. In order to understand the origins of our visual abilities, scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute in Göttingen and the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, have now investigated whether these computational units scale across the large differences in size between primates.

You might have observed plants competing for sunlight -- the way they stretch upwards and outwards to block each other's access to the sun's rays -- but out of sight, another type of competition is happening underground. In the same way that you might change the way you forage for free snacks in the break room when your colleagues are present, plants change their use of underground resources when they're planted alongside other plants.

A fleet of new-generation, deep-diving ocean robots will be deployed in the Southern Ocean, in a major study of how marine life acts as a handbrake on global warming.

The automated probes will be looking for 'marine snow', which is the name given to the shower of dead algae and carbon-rich organic particles that sinks from upper waters to the deep ocean.

Sailing from Hobart on Friday, twenty researchers aboard CSIRO's RV Investigator hope to capture the most detailed picture yet of how marine life in the Southern Ocean captures and stores carbon from the atmosphere.

A new tool combining traditional pathology with machine learning could predict which breast cancer patients actually need surgery. The technology, reported in the November issue of American Journal of Physiology -- Cell Physiology (vol. 319: C910-C921; https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00280.2020), could spare women from unnecessary treatments, reduce medical expenses, and lead to a new generation of drugs to stop breast cancer recurrences.