Culture

Water issuing from an ordinary faucet tells a complex tale of its journey through a pipe. At high velocities, the faucet's gushing stream is turbulent: chaotic, disorderly -- like the crash of ocean waves.

Compared to orderly laminar flows, like the faucet's steady stream at low velocities, scientists know little about turbulence. Even less is known about how laminar flows become turbulent. A mix of orderly and disorderly flows, transitional flows occur when fluids move at intermediate velocities.

The entire set of our emotions is topographically represented in a small region of the brain, a 3 centimeters area of the cortex, report scientists in a study conducted at the IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy. The discovery of this "map" of emotions comes from a work conducted by the Molecular Mind Laboratory (MoMiLab) directed by Professor Pietro Pietrini, and recently published in Nature Communications.

Yard signs for a local politician captured the curiosity of Katherine Haenschen.

"I was driving through the region and noticed the same campaign was using a different font on signs in rural areas than on the signs in town," said Haenschen, an assistant professor in the Department of Communication. "I thought, why would this candidate be using multiple fonts?"

An expert in political messaging, Haenschen and Daniel Tamul, also an assistant professor in the Department of Communication, transformed the question into a captivating research project.

In 2011, China's Supreme Court dealt a blow to the property rights of women by ruling that family homes purchased before marriage automatically belong to the registered buyer upon divorce, historically the husband.

URBANA, Ill. - The U.S. and China recently agreed to a phase one trade deal that aims to resolve the current trade war between the two countries. But that is just the latest development in longstanding and complicated U.S.-Chinese trade disputes.

To mitigate climate change and safeguard ecosystems, we need to make drastic changes in our consumption and transport behaviors. A new IIASA study shows how even minor changes to available infrastructure can trigger tipping points in the collective adoption of sustainable behaviors.

The impact of the tobacco display ban on young people's attitudes to smoking has been analysed by University of Stirling experts.

The five-year public health study also looked at the effect of the ban on young people's exposure to point-of-sale tobacco promotions and the likelihood of them taking up smoking - as well as the potential for e-cigarettes to influence smoking initiation.

When a plant is lacking important nutrients, it cannot simply move to another location where it can get the nutrients it needs. Instead, it has to adapt to the situation by adjusting its metabolism. It does this by activating certain programmes incorporated in its genome.

Iron is one of those nutrients that is essential for plants' growth and survival. It plays a role in photosynthesis and water regulation. Plants absorb iron through their roots, but the iron must be present in sufficient quantities and in a form that can be processed by the plant.

Rich countries vary a lot when it comes to health and social problems. A comparison of social ills ranging from intentional homicides to obesity rates in 40 rich societies shows that Asian and European countries fare much better than Anglophone and Latin American countries. The most problem-ridden countries are Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and the United States. The positive end of the list is headed by Japan, South Korea and Singapore, followed by Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Germany ranks 15th just behind Austria.

Human pressure on the world's ocean accelerated sharply at the start of the 21st century and shows no sign of slowing, according to a comprehensive new analysis on the state of the ocean.

Scientists have dubbed the dramatic rise the "Blue Acceleration". The researchers from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, synthesized 50-years of data from shipping, drilling, deep-sea mining, aquaculture, bioprospecting and much more. The results are published in the journal One Earth, 24 January.

Researchers from the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN) used a new technique to show how electrical impulses are traveling with high speed in the brain. It appears that myelin, the sheath around neurons, creates a coaxial cable producing multiple waves of electrical potentials traveling in a more complicated manner than was envisioned earlier. These findings allow us to create better theories and tools to understand demyelinating diseases, including the most common neurological disorder, multiple sclerosis.

Finnish research team maps neural activity in response to watching horror movies. A study conducted by the University of Turku shows the top horror movies of the past 100 years, and how they manipulate brain activity.

Humans are fascinated by what scares us, be it sky-diving, roller-coasters, or true-crime documentaries - provided these threats are kept at a safe distance. Horror movies are no different.

Like animals and humans, plants possess a kind of immune system. It can e.g. recognize pathogenic fungi by the chitin in their cell walls, triggering disease resistance. Some fungi hide from the immune system by modifying some of the chitin building blocks, converting chitin into chitosan. Researchers of the University of Münster now found that plants can react to a certain pattern in this chitosan, stimulating their immune system. They are already developing a chitosan-based plant immune-stimulant in order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture.

Physicists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich, together with colleagues at Saarland University, have successfully demonstrated the transport of an entangled state between an atom and a photon via an optic fiber over a distance of up to 20 km - thus setting a new record.

Bees are pollinators of many wild and crop plants, but in many places their diversity and density is declining. A research team from the Universities of Göttingen, Sussex and Würzburg has now investigated the foraging behaviour of bees in agricultural landscapes. To do this, the scientists analysed the bees' dances, which are called the "waggle dance". They found out that honey bees prefer strawberry fields, even if they flowered directly next to the oilseed rape fields. Only when oilseed rape was in full bloom were fewer honey bees observed in the strawberry field.