Culture

New research in JNeurosci explores how a particular region of the brainstem might explain differences in attention in people with autism.

The first published data from the Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease (A4) study supports the hypothesis that higher levels of the amyloid protein in the brain represent an early stage of Alzheimer's disease. Results of an analysis of participant screening data for the study, published April 6 in JAMA Neurology, also show that amyloid burden in clinically normal older adults is associated with a family history of disease, lower cognitive test scores, and reports of declines in daily cognitive function.

What The Study Did: About 2,400 students in the 12th grade were surveyed about the frequency and mode of use (smoking, vaping and edibles) of marijuana from 2015 to 2018.

Authors: Megan E. Patrick, Ph.D., of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0175)

With the goal of ensuring that single-cell RNA sequencing, a current focus of intense research, makes use of the best possible methods, an international group has benchmarked 13 different methods. The group, led by Holger Heyn of the Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG-CRG) in Spain, found that the Quartz-seq2 method, developed by a team in the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, was overall the best method developed to sequence single-cell RNA. The research was published in Nature Biotechnology.

University of Groningen scientists observed the characteristics of a single enzyme inside a nanopore. This revealed that the enzyme can exist in four different folded states, or conformers, that play an active role in the reaction mechanism. These results will have consequences for enzyme engineering and the development of inhibitors. The study was published in Nature Chemistry on 6 April.

CAMBRIDGE, MA -- Imagine you are meeting a friend for dinner at a new restaurant. You may try dishes you haven't had before, and your surroundings will be completely new to you. However, your brain knows that you have had similar experiences -- perusing a menu, ordering appetizers, and splurging on dessert are all things that you have probably done when dining out.

Professor Natan Gadoth at the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel has written a review on the subject with a focus on the comorbidities in an attempt to present an update for researchers.

Marine microorganisms, such as bacteria and so-called protists, form a large part of the biomass in the oceans. Protists are a group of unicellular microorganisms that have a solid cell nucleus and are therefore different from bacteria. Many protists are part of the phytoplankton and as such, they drive important global processes. They perform photosynthesis and thus play an important role in removing CO2 from the atmosphere. They also form the basis of the food web by which marine fisheries are fueled. Yet little is known about how these microorganisms function.

"Do CEOs matter?" has been a perennial question in management discourse. But "the CEO effect" has been notoriously difficult to isolate -- a moving target caught in the slipstream of dynamic forces that shape firm performance.

PHILADELPHIA (April 6, 2020) - Data show that the number of people with clinically complex health and social needs is growing. Programs designed to support these adults have fallen short and the healthcare system is becoming overtaxed by these "super-utilizers".

At the SuperKEKB Collider, scientists have performed the first searches of invisibly decaying low mass boson particles. The results come from the Belle II experiment--an experiment mainly dedicated to studying B mesons, which are rare, unstable particles composed by a beauty quark and other lighter quarks. Belle II creates B mesons by colliding electrons and positrons, but those same collisions can produce other particles. Now, researchers have searched for low mass Z' bosons, hypothetical new particles that could connect ordinary and dark matter.

TROY, N.Y. -- From Steve Jobs to Mark Zuckerberg, the stories of prosperous, young innovators drive the American economic narrative. However, the truth is that older business entrepreneurs may be just as well suited to success. And older women are far more successful at launching a business than their younger counterparts.

Those are among the findings reached by Hao Zhao, an associate professor of management at the Lally School of Management at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in research recently published online in the Journal of Business Venturing.

Washington, DC - Belief in all powerful supernatural entities that police moral behavior between people has been shown to promote prosocial behavior between co-religionists. But do these effects extend to members of different religious groups? In a new paper, which will appear in print in an upcoming special issue of Social Psychological and Personality Science, Michael Pasek, Jeremy Ginges, and colleagues find that, across religious groups in Fiji and Israel, religious believers see God as encouraging people to treat others in a more universal, or equal, manner.

The regular arrangement of atoms in a crystal allows complex interactions that can lead to new states of matter. Some crystals have magnetic interactions in only one dimension, i.e. are they magnetically one-dimensional. If, in addition, successive magnetic moments are pointing in opposite directions , then we are dealing with a one-dimensional antiferromagnet. Hans Bethe first described this system theoretically in 1931, predicting also the presence of excitations of strings of two or more consecutive moments pointing in one direction, so called Bethe strings.

Radiolabeled molecules, so-called radiotracers, help nuclear physicians to detect and precisely target tumors, which are often developing due to pathological changes in metabolic processes. Using positron emission tomography, a team of scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) has now developed the first radiotracer labelled with the fluorine isotope 18F, which can visualize special transport proteins often found in the cell membranes of cancer cells.