Culture

Through the manipulation of quasiparticles known as surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) metallic nanostructures can control light at the nanoscale, confining it to ultrathin gaps and magnifying the light intensity up to 1000 times. This light localization amplifies light-matter interactions and has wide ranging applications in nanoscale optics including low concentration molecular sensing, enhanced photocatalysis and super-resolution optics.

For their growth, cells need various nutrients and vitamins. So-called solute carriers (SLC), proteins that can transport such substances across the boundaries of cellular membranes, play a central role in metabolism. Scientists in Giulio Superti-Furga's research group at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences have now discovered that the previously uncharacterised protein SLC25A51 acts as a transporter into the mitochondria for the coenzyme NAD.

Radio has always proved to be a medium that adapts easily to crisis situations. Throughout history, at times of major natural disasters and health emergencies, radio has played a leading role thanks to the fact that is the most universal, simplest and most accessible of media.

In the current crisis caused by covid-19, radio has again stood out as being an essential medium to stay informed, according to the study by Rodero (2020). The results indicate that radio is the medium that scores highest for its treatment of information about the pandemic.

In 2002 Professor Alceu Ranzi (Federal University of Acre) and Prof. Martti Parssinen (University of Helsinki) decided to form an international research team to study large geometric earthworks, called geoglyphs, at the Brazilian state of Acre in South-western Amazonia. Soon it appeared that a pre-colonial civilization unknown to international scholars built there geometric ceremonial centers and sophisticated road systems. This civilization flourished in the rainforest 2,000 years ago. The discovery supported Prof.

Light-induced processes are critical in transformative technologies such as solar energy harvesting, as well as in photomedicine and photoresponsive materials. Theoretical studies of the dynamics of photoinduced processes require numerous electronic structure calculations, which are computationally expensive. Scientists from the University of Groningen developed machine learning-based algorithms, which reduce these computations significantly.

A protein called CatSper1 may act as a molecular 'barcode' that helps determine which sperm cells will make it to an egg and which are eliminated along the way.

The findings in mice, published recently in eLife, have important implications for understanding the selection process that sperm cells undergo after they enter the female reproductive tract, a key step in reproduction. Learning more about these processes could lead to the development of new approaches to treating infertility.

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. -- Imagine changing the TV channel with a wave of your hand or turning on the car radio with a twist of your wrist.

Freehand gesture-based interfaces in interactive systems are becoming more common, but what if your preferred way to gesture a command - say, changing the TV to channel 10 - significantly differed from that of a user from another culture? Would the system recognize your command?

A rupture along the full length of the fast-slipping Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island poses the largest potential seismic threat to the southern and central parts of the country. But new evidence of a 19th century earthquake indicates that in at least one portion of the fault, smaller earthquakes may occur in between such large rupture events.

ITHACA, NY, December 1, 2020 -- Thousands of years ago, people in South America began domesticating Solanum pimpinellifolium, a weedy plant with small, intensely flavored fruit. Over time, the plant evolved into S. lycopersicum - the modern cultivated tomato.

Although today's tomatoes are larger and easier to farm compared with their wild ancestor, they also are less resistant to disease and environmental stresses like drought and salty soil.

As case rates of COVID-19 reach new heights across the nation, many states and cities are tightening stay-at-home restrictions to stop the spread. New research suggests that that those suffering from economic hardships are less likely comply with new stay-at-home orders; however, these same U.S. residents would be more likely to adhere to the new public health guidelines if their households received stimulus funds.

Geoscientists have long known that some parts of the continents formed in the Earth's deep past, but the speed in which land rose above global seas -- and the exact shapes that land masses formed -- have so far eluded experts.

But now, through analyzing roughly 600,000 mineral analyses from a database of about 7,700 different rock samples, a team led by Jesse Reimink, assistant professor of geosciences at Penn State, thinks they're getting closer to the answers.

ASM Journal editors and staff seek to improve gender equity after analysis shows that women are not only underrepresented but receive more negative outcomes

Highlights:

Researchers analyzed nearly 80,000 manuscript submissions to ASM journals to gather baseline data on gender bias in the publication process.

They found that women are underrepresented in ASM journals.

Studies with women listed as corresponding authors were more likely to be rejected during the first two rounds of editorial review.

Historically credited as being the first bacterium ever characterized as a plant pathogen, fire blight is a bacterial disease that leads to significant losses of pear and apple. The role of insects in the spread of this disease has been long studied. In a new study, plant pathologists based at Cornell University and Cornell AgriTech take a hypothesis that has been more or less ignored for 100 years and provided support for its validity.

New research published in the journal Diversity and Distributions used cutting-edge technology to show that wild cousins of sorghum, the fifth-most important cereal crop globally, are most concentrated in Australia, despite having been domesticated in Africa. But with 12 of the total 23 wild relative species possibly endangered, four vulnerable, and four near threatened, these economically important wild plants are in peril, the authors warn.

Many residents of flood-prone areas of rural Nicaragua face uncertain economic futures each season. In a new paper, EGC faculty affiliate Kevin Donovan and co-author Wyatt Brooks of Arizona State University examine the role of footbridges in providing rural households reliable access to larger and higher-paying urban labor markets. They find that bridge construction increases integration, leading to substantial positive economic impact on rural economies.