Culture

CORVALLIS, Ore. - A new study provides evidence that increasing the abundance of a threatened or endangered species can deliver large benefits to the citizens of the Pacific Northwest.

The study, published today in the journal PLOS ONE, finds that a two-thirds increase in the average annual number of returning coho salmon to the Oregon coast would generate up to $518 million per year in non-market economic benefits to residents of the region.

Children's savings accounts (CSAs), offered by elementary schools throughout San Francisco and in schools across the nation, were introduced to boost college-going rates, limit student debt and foster equal opportunity for low-income children. However, San Francisco State University Assistant Professor of Management Ian Dunham finds that geography -- particularly in neighborhoods that lack brick-and-mortar banks and credit unions -- may play a key role in how much families with CSAs actually save for college.

Boosting a single molecule in the brain can change "dispositional anxiety," the tendency to perceive many situations as threatening, in nonhuman primates, researchers from the University of California, Davis, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison have found. The molecule, neurotrophin-3, stimulates neurons to grow and make new connections.

By moving beyond the surface level and literally digging deep, scientists at the University of California, Davis, found that compost is a key to storing carbon in semi-arid cropland soils, a strategy for offsetting CO2 emissions.

Although some studies have linked high levels of testosterone to immoral behavior, a new study published in Nature Human Behaviour finds testosterone supplements actually made people more sensitive to moral norms, suggesting that testosterone's influence on behavior is more complicated than previously thought.

It's unlikely that someone born today could independently think up all the necessary steps it would take to send a rocket to the moon. They would need to learn from those who came before them.

"There are so many things you would need to learn, engineering and chemistry and astronomy," says Marco Smolla, an evolutionary biologist and postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Biology in Penn's School of Arts and Sciences. "It's the 'standing on the shoulders of giants' idea."

It is well known that men benefit reproductively from having multiple spouses, but the reasons why women might benefit from multiple marriages are not as clear. Women, as a result of pregnancy and lactation, can't reproduce as fast as males.

But new research by the University of California, Davis, challenges evolutionary-derived sexual stereotypes about men and women, finding that multiple spouses can be good for women too.

Over a hundred years after they were first identified, two ominous signposts of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain central topics of research--both formed by sticky accumulations of protein in the brain. Amyloid beta solidifies into senile plaques, which congregate in the extracellular spaces of nerve tissue, while tau protein creates tangled forms crowding the bodies of neurons.

Facing the threat of domestic violence, being a survivor of sexual assault, struggling with depression or thoughts of suicide are four topics that are difficult to broach with anyone. Including those who can help you.

A new study reveals up to 47.5 percent of patients who feel they face one or more of these four threats do not disclose this critical information to care providers out of embarrassment, fear of judgement or the possible long-term implications of sharing such information.

However, while too much inequality is harmful, the researchers also find that complete equality isn't always needed either, in order to bring about the greatest benefits to the public. Some inequality within groups can actually help to ensure that everyone contributes sufficiently to the group, according to the findings. The results could help policy-makers who are responsible for ensuring continuing support for public goods and services such as taxes, healthcare and education.

New research, published today in Nature, reveals how increasing brain stiffness as we age causes brain stem cell dysfunction, and demonstrates new ways to reverse older stem cells to a younger, healthier state.

The results have far reaching implications for how we understand the ageing process, and how we might develop much-needed treatments for age-related brain diseases.

Bats with skulls and teeth adapted to a wide range of diets are helping scientists understand how major groups of mammals first evolved.

***A video quiz of the bats is available to embed from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X42lf4Uk4c4 ***

By analysing the skulls of a group of bats that feed on everything from nectar to blood, researchers from the US and Imperial College London have identified how the bats have tweaked their development to adapt to different diets.

A team at the University of Cambridge has shown how, in osteoarthritis patients, the viscous lubricant that ordinarily allows our joints to move smoothly triggers a pain response from nerve cells similar that caused by chilli peppers.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes joint pain and stiffness, and in some people swelling and tenderness of the joints. The condition affects an individual's quality of life and costs millions to the global economy, both directly in terms of healthcare costs and indirectly due to impact on the individual's working life.

Breakthrough in understanding of magnetic monopoles could signal new technologies

A breakthrough in understanding how the quasi-particles known as magnetic monopoles behave could lead to the development of new technologies to replace electric charges.

Researchers at the University of Kent applied a combination of quantum and classic physics to investigate how magnetic atoms interact with each other to form composite objects known as 'magnetic monopoles'.

New Rochelle, NY, August 12, 2019--An optimized and newly engineered form of the adeno-associated vector 9 (AAV9) vector used to deliver the galactosylceramidase gene to a mouse model of the inherited neurogenerative and rapidly fatal form of Krabbe dis-ease improved clinical symptoms and prolonged median survival by 275%.