Culture

WASHINGTON -- Researchers have developed a new self-calibrating endoscope that produces 3D images of objects smaller than a single cell. Without a lens or any optical, electrical or mechanical components, the tip of the endoscope measures just 200 microns across, about the width of a few human hairs twisted together.

During the 2016 Presidential Election, both major party candidates, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, ran on polarizing platforms focusing on a few central issues: immigration, medicare, social issues (i.e., abortion, paid family leave), international trade, and sexism and violence against women.

Washington, DC, August 15, 2019 - A new study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), published by Elsevier, reports that bullying victimization may increase the risk of suicide attempts among young adolescents by approximately three-times worldwide.

Barcelona: Analyses show that gases found in microscopic inclusions in diamonds come from a stable subterranean reservoir at least as old as the Moon, hidden more than 410 km below sea level in the Earth's mantle.

From within the genetic diversity of wild teosinte - the evolutionary ancestor of modern maize -valuable traits lay hidden. In searching the ancestral genome, researchers report the discovery of UPA2, a rare allele long-lost to the selective pressures of domestication in modern maize, which can be used to directly increase the crop yields of densely planted maize by altering the angle of the plants leaves. "The work suggests that re-domesticating crops may identify other useful traits hidden in our crop's ancestors," writes Sarah Hake in a related Perspective.

An analysis of helium isotopes locked inside "super-deep" diamonds hundreds of kilometers below Earth's surface suggests that vast reservoirs of molten primordial source rock, perhaps nearly as old as the Earth, are present. The helium-bearing diamonds studied as part of the analysis provide the first and most direct record of the variation of helium isotope compositions below Earth's lithosphere, the authors say.

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Clinical research funding continues to lag for the U.S. population of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, even though the nation's largest biomedical funding agency has pledged to prioritize research on diverse populations, a new study from Oregon State University shows.

"We looked at how this commitment has translated to funding and we found that things really haven't changed," said Lan Doan, a doctoral candidate in public health at OSU.

Patients who meet an addiction medicine consult team while they're in the hospital are twice as likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorder after they go home, according to new research.

The study, published today in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, measured one key outcome for patients who participated in a first-of-its-kind addiction intervention program started by Oregon Health & Science University in 2015.

Worcester, Mass. - August 15, 2019 - A biologist at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has shown that a key biological component in a worm's communication system can be repurposed to take on a different job, a critical finding about the workings of evolution that could one day affect research into drug interactions, agricultural bio-engineering, and a better understanding of genetic inheritance through multiple generations.

Marching, wiggling and tapping a beat aids young children to develop their self-regulation skills and improve school readiness, as shown in newly-published QUT early childhood research.

Associate Professor Kate Williams designed a low-cost preschool program focussing exclusively on rhythm and movement activities linked to pathways in the brain to support attentional and emotional development.

"Think heads, shoulders, knees and toes but do the actions backwards while you sing forwards. It tricks the brain into gear," Assoc Prof Williams said.

Women with severe sleep apnea appear to be at an elevated risk of getting cancer, a study shows. No causal relationship is demonstrated, but the link between nocturnal hypoxia in women and higher cancer risk is still clear.

"It's reasonable to assume that sleep apnea is a risk factor for cancer, or that both conditions have common risk factors, such as overweight. On the other hand, it is less likely that cancer leads to sleep apnea," notes Ludger Grote, Adjunct Professor and chief physician in sleep medicine, and the last author of the current study.

New research by a University of Bristol palaeontology post-graduate student has revealed fresh insights into how the braincase of the dinosaur Psittacosaurus developed and how this tells us about its posture.

Psittacosaurus was a very common dinosaur in the Early Cretaceous period - 125 million years ago - that lived in eastern Asia, especially north-east China.

(Jena, Germany) The significance of some objects is so deeply entrenched in our psyche that we rely on them even when they are not actually helpful. This is the case with a bike helmet. Since our childhood, we learn that we are more protected in traffic when wearing a helmet on our head. The hard, stable headgear suggests safety - even if the wearer is not sitting on a bike and the helmet cannot fulfil its function. These are the findings of psychologists from the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany in cooperation with the Canadian University of Victoria.

Eumelanin - a natural pigment found for instance in human eyes - has, for the first time, been identified in the fossilized compound eyes of 54-million-year-old crane-flies. It was previously assumed that melanic screening pigments did not exist in arthropods.

"We were surprised by what we found because we were not looking for, or expecting it", says Johan Lindgren, an Associate Professor at the Department of Geology, Lund University, and lead author of the study published this week in the journal Nature.

Almost 20 per cent of people awaiting hip replacements are experiencing extreme pain or discomfort, a study shows.

Researchers also found that 12 per cent of patients on waiting lists for knee replacements considered themselves to be in a similarly acute state of health.

The figures are worse than for many other chronic health conditions, such as diabetes, heart failure or lung diseases.