Culture

WASHINGTON, January 21, 2020 -- Most traditional electromagnetic methods for detecting hidden metal objects involve systems that are heavy, bulky and require lots of electricity.

Recent studies have shown metallic objects have their own magnetic fingerprints based on size, shape and physical composition. In AIP Advances, from AIP Publishing, scientists look to leverage these observations to potentially create a smaller and cheaper system that is just as effective as their larger counterparts.

Despite the protections in place to support breastfeeding for employees, the burden still falls on working mothers to advocate for the resources they need, according to a new study from the University of Georgia.

The study also revealed gaps in the quality and accessibility of breastfeeding resources in the eyes of working mothers.

PITTSBURGH, Jan. 21, 2020 - Overweight and obese vitamin D-deficient children who took a relatively high dose of vitamin D every day for six months had lower blood pressure and improved insulin sensitivity than their peers who took a lower dose, according to the results of a UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh clinical trial reported in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Without their keen sense of smell, mosquitoes wouldn't get very far. They rely on this sense to find a host to bite and spots to lay eggs.

And without that sense of smell, mosquitoes could not locate their dominant source of food: nectar from flowers.

"Nectar is an important source of food for all mosquitoes," said Jeffrey Riffell, a professor of biology at the University of Washington. "For male mosquitoes, nectar is their only food source, and female mosquitoes feed on nectar for all but a few days of their lives."

DURHAM, N.C. -- A Duke University research team has identified a new function of a gene called huntingtin, a mutation of which underlies the progressive neurodegenerative disorder known as Huntington's Disease.

Using genetic mouse models, they have discovered that neurons in the striatum, a brain area involved in controlling movement, require the huntingtin gene for regulating the body's movements, maintaining cell health during aging, and developing functioning connections between cells.

Like motley bandits, certain enzymes implicated in cancer and other diseases also annihilate each other. A new study reveals details of their mutual foils in the hopes that these behaviors can be leveraged to fight the enzymes' disease potential.

Limiting global warming to well below 2°C requires a decarbonized world by 2050 at the latest and a corresponding global transformation of the energy and land use systems of societies across the world. To achieve this goal of net-zero carbon by 2050 emissions need to be cut by half every decade from now on. An interdisciplinary team of researchers now explored tipping mechanisms that have the potential to spark rapid yet constructive societal changes towards climate stabilization and overall sustainability.

Racial bias and policing made headlines last year after a study examining records of fatal police shootings claimed white officers were no more likely to shoot racial minorities than nonwhite officers. There was one problem: The study was based on a logical fallacy.

The original research counted the numbers of fatal shootings, but never considered how often civilians encounter police officers, an essential ingredient to justifying its central claim.

They might not yet speak in complete sentences, but 18-month-olds are savvy when it comes to deciding when and how to try.

Marijuana use is on the rise as more states legalize it for medicinal and recreational purposes, and physicians are fielding more questions about its safety.

Although smoking tobacco is responsible for approximately one in four deaths from cardiovascular disease, the effects of smoking marijuana on the heart are not fully understood. Some studies suggest that marijuana can trigger heart attacks and strokes in some users.

Economists working with Professor Marko Sarstedt from Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg are demanding that the same scientific standards be applied to economics and the behavioral sciences in general as are used in the natural sciences. They believe that the inherent uncertainties in measured values must be described and quantified in order to enhance the reproducibility of measurement series. Only in this way can the sources of errors be identified and eliminated.

Many bacterial pathogens excrete toxins as soon as they have entered the host in order to suppress its immune response. Researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) have analysed what happens on the molecular level when the diarrhea pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis switches into attack mode. To this end, they examined so-called RNA thermometers, which signal to the bacteria whether they are in the host.

A University of Liverpool research paper, published in American Psychologist, provides new evidence for using a humane, respectful and compassionate approach to interrogating High-Value Detainees (HVDs - i.e. terrorist suspects) to encourage co-operation and disclosure of information.

Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counselling method that helps people resolve ambivalent feelings and insecurities to find the internal motivation they need to change their behaviour.

A team of Russian scientists working in cooperation with international colleagues used a new method combining visual microscopic observations and photoemission spectrum registration that can be used to create a map of the physical and chemical state of cell surface. The team studied the cells of the colon bacillus Escherichia coli that are a promising material for the development of nature-like technologies. The study was supported with a grant of the Russian Science Foundation, and the article about it was published in the Results in Physics journal.

Information about an artwork has no effect on the aesthetic experience of museum visitors. The characteristics of the artwork itself have a much stronger impact on observers. Psychologists from the University of Basel reached these conclusions in a new study.

Aesthetic experiences involve a complex interaction of modes of perception and cognitive processes: the artworks' properties such as coloring and the content depicted play a role, and so do the individual characteristics of the viewer, their knowledge, and contextual factors such as an artwork's title.