Brain

DURHAM, N.C. -- A potential carcinogen that has been banned as a food additive is present in concerningly high levels in electronic cigarette liquids and smokeless tobacco products, according to a new study from Duke Health.

The chemical -- called pulegone (pronounced pju-leh-goan) - is contained in menthol and mint flavored e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products. Because of its carcinogenic properties, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration banned pulegone as a food additive last year in response to petitions from consumer groups.

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have studied what it means for children to have parents who are refugees and have PTSD. The study shows that these children have a significantly higher risk of contact with the psychiatric system. The researchers believe that there should be focus on the problem and that early measures and treatment options should be developed.

Systemic lupus erythematosus, a chronic autoimmune disease commonly referred to as lupus or SLE, has been compared to volatile, unprovoked brawls within the body.

The disease, which has no cure, operates much like an allergic reaction gone awry: When activated, the immune system also attacks the body's healthy cells, tissues, and organs, causing inflammation and producing a host of symptoms that, though unique to each person, are universally called flares.

A research group led by Professor Tomoyuki Furuyashiki and Associate Professor Shiho Kitaoka (Graduate School of Medicine) in collaboration with researcher Yasuhisa Ano of Kirin Holdings have made discoveries regarding the effect of the dipeptide Leucine-Histidine (LH) in suppressing microglial activation and depression-associated emotional disturbances. LH dipeptide is found in fermented foods such as blue cheese and natto (fermented soy beans). Foods rich in LH dipeptide may be a safe, preventive method for maintaining good mental health.

An innovative solution used to prevent common brain infections in patients having surgery for hydrocephalus has been found to significantly reduce infection rates according to a report published in The Lancet today (12 September 2019).

Hydrocephalus is a build-up of fluid on the brain. The excess fluid puts pressure on the brain, which can damage it. Approximately one out of every 500 babies is born with hydrocephalus, making it the most common reason for brain surgery in children.

WASHINGTON, D.C., September 12, 2019 -- African Americans are seeing growth in many engineering and physical sciences fields, but they are not progressing at the same rate when compared to the general population.

A report from the American Institute of Physics (AIP) Statistical Research Center (SRC) examined the number of bachelor's degrees earned from 2005 to 2015 and separated out the numbers for African Americans from the rest of the students. The data was gathered by the National Center for Education Statistics from postsecondary institutions in the United States.

WASHINGTON, D.C. (Sept. 10, 2019) - The Trump administration's "public charge" rule, which would subject legal immigrants to a public charge determination if they use public health, nutrition and housing benefits for which they are eligible, represents a major threat to health, according to a "friend of the court" brief filed Sept. 10.

LA JOLLA--(September 10, 2019) During high stress situations such as making a goal in soccer, some athletes experience a rapid decline in performance under pressure, known as "choking." Now, Salk Institute researchers have uncovered what might be behind the phenomenon: one-way signals from the brain's emotion circuit to the movement circuit.

LAWRENCE -- New findings from University of Kansas experimental nuclear physicists Daniel Tapia Takaki and Aleksandr (Sasha) Bylinkin were just published in the European Physical Journal C. The paper centers on work at the Compact Muon Solenoid, an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, to better understand the behavior of gluons.

Children's persistence in the face of challenges is key to learning and academic success. However, we know little about how parents and educators can help foster persistent behavior in children before they begin formal schooling. A new U.S. study looked at the interactions of preschool-age children with adults to determine how they affected the children's persistence. It found that the efforts adults put into their actions, successes and failures, and words affected children's persistent behavior to differing degrees.

Philadelphia, September 10, 2019 - There is growing evidence that caregivers of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are vulnerable to developing their own poor cardiovascular health. Investigators report in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, published by Elsevier, on a proof-of-concept couples-based intervention in a cardiac rehabilitation setting.

An artificial intelligence tool - which analyzed 28 physical and molecular measures, all but one from blood samples - confirmed with 77 percent accuracy a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male combat veterans, according to a new study.

To build the next generation of powerful proton accelerators, scientists need the strongest magnets possible to steer particles close to the speed of light around a ring. For a given ring size, the higher the beam's energy, the stronger the accelerator's magnets need to be to keep the beam on course.

High schools where students are more connected to peers and adult staff, and share strong relationships with the same adults, have lower rates of suicide attempts, according to a new study published by the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

AUSTRALIA, Sydney - September 10, 2019 - We've all heard that 'food is good for your mood'. Now a new study into mental health and nutrient supplementation has taken a leap forward by establishing the gold standard for which nutrients are proven to assist in the management of a range of mental health disorders.

As well as an established relationship between poor diet and mental illness, there is now a vast body of research examining the benefit of nutrient supplementation in people with mental disorders.