Brain

PHILADELPHIA -- Greening vacant urban land significantly reduces feelings of depression and improves overall mental health for the surrounding residents, researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine and the School of Arts & Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania and other institutions show in a new randomized, controlled study published in JAMA Network Open. The findings have implications for cities across the United States, where 15 percent of land is deemed "vacant" and often blighted or filled with trash and overgrown vegetation.

Irvine, Calif., July 17, 2018 - In a first of its kind randomized trial, researchers from the UCI School of Medicine found therapy dogs to be effective in reducing the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The study's main outcomes were recently published by the American Psychological Association in the Society of Counseling Psychology's Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin (HAIB). Additional new findings were presented at the International Society for Anthrozoology 2018 Conference held July 2-5 in Sydney, Australia.

Alternative schooling programs could deliver greater learning outcomes for young people who are struggling at school, according to University of South Australia researcher, Dr Thomas Stehlik.

Training teachers to focus their attention on positive conduct and to avoid jumping to correct minor disruption improves child behaviour, concentration and mental health.

A study led by the University of Exeter Medical School, published in Psychological Medicine, analysed the success of a training programme called the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Programme. Its core principles include building strong social relationship between teachers and children, and ignoring low-level bad behaviour that often disrupts classrooms.

Research by King's College London has found that local authorities across England have failed to prioritise palliative and end of life care, despite the health care challenges posed by a rapidly ageing population.

The research, published today in the journal Palliative Medicine, is based on an analysis of the Health and Wellbeing Strategies of 150 local authorities across England, which found that only 4 per cent cited end of life care as a priority.

Expanding the number of grammar schools is unlikely to promote social mobility by providing more opportunities for disadvantaged pupils, a new study published in Educational Review finds.

The lab of Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and their international colleagues have used ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. Though unprecedented in itself, the scientists also used their experimental success to develop a theory of how to create electron flashes within zeptosecond (10-21 of a second) timeframes, using already existing technology.

Here's the neuroscience of a neglected banana (and a lot of other things in daily life): whenever you look at its color - green in the store, then yellow, and eventually brown on your countertop - your mind categorizes it as unripe, ripe, and then spoiled. A new study that tracked how the brain turns simple sensory inputs, such as "green," into meaningful categories, such as "unripe," shows that the information follows a progression through many regions of the cortex, and not exactly in the way many neuroscientists would predict.

All liars have classic tells: the lack of eye contact, the fidgeting, the overly elaborate stories. Except when they don't.

In fact, researchers say, the most adept deceivers often don't present any of those signs and, further, the average observer's tendency to rely on such visual cues impedes their ability to tell when someone is lying. But those detection skills can be improved markedly with as little as one hour of training.

Cellular functions rely on several communications networks that allow cells to rapidly respond to signals affecting the organism. A new study published in the prestigious journal Molecular Cell has revealed a mechanism that shuts down a major cell-to-cell communications pathway implicated in a number of diseases. INRS professor Nicolas Doucet and his research team contributed to the discovery of this new molecular switch, shedding new light on the role of receptor tyrosine kinases, a well-known protein family whose function is still being explored.