Brain

What The Study Did: The association between receipt of the bradykinin 2 (B2) receptor antagonist icatibant and improved oxygenation in patients with COVID-19 is investigated in this study.

Authors: Frank L. van de Veerdonk, M.D., Ph.D., of the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17708)

From Sinatra to Katy Perry, celebrities have long sung about the power of a smile - how it picks you up, changes your outlook, and generally makes you feel better. But is it all smoke and mirrors, or is there a scientific backing to the claim?

Groundbreaking research from the University of South Australia confirms that the act of smiling can trick your mind into being more positive, simply by moving your facial muscles.

As the uncertainty around reopening college and university campuses this fall continues, those who work, study, teach and conduct research are navigating the uncertain terrain of the "new normal." They are balancing physical distancing and other COVID-19 prevention practices with productivity, creating home workspaces and mastering communications and teamwork across time and space.

Yoga improves symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, a condition with chronic nervousness and worry, suggesting the popular practice may be helpful in treating anxiety in some people.

Led by researchers at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, a new study found that yoga was significantly more effective for generalized anxiety disorder than standard education on stress management, but not effective as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the gold standard form of structured talk therapy that helps patients identify negative thinking for better responses to challenges.

What The Study Did: Researchers in this randomized clinical trial assessed whether Kundalini yoga and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder are each more effective than stress education and whether yoga is noninferior to CBT for the treatment of the disorder.

Authors: Naomi M. Simon, M.D., M.Sc., of the New York University Grossman School of Medicine in New York, is the corresponding author.

To prevent the spread of COVID-19, many universities canceled classes or held them online this spring -- a change likely to continue for many this fall. As a result, hands-on chemistry labs are no longer accessible to undergraduate students. In a new study in the Journal of Chemical Education, researchers describe an alternative way to engage students: a virtual game, modeled on an escape room, in which teams solve chemistry problems to progress and "escape."

Although it has become increasingly accepted for medical and recreational use, cannabis is still considered among one of the most widely used illegal substances in the United States and in many European countries. A common assumption is that cannabis consumption before or during work hours causes substandard work performance, yet there has been very little scientific exploration regarding the impact of cannabis use after working hours.

What The Study Did: We present our experience in using single-access, dual-stage venovenous ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), with an emphasis on early extubation of patients while they received ECMO support.

Authors: Antone J. Tatooles, M.D., of Advocate Christ Medical Center in Oak Lawn, Illinois, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.3950)

The built environment, where someone lives (private) or works (public), influences a person's daily life and can help, or hinder, their mental health. This is especially true for those with mental health conditions such as PTSD, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

Researchers in the Wm Michael Barnes '64 Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering at Texas A&M University are working to determine which elements of built environments affect veterans with PTSD the most, and how they can be altered to help veterans thrive.

A combination of genetic and emotional differences may lead to post-traumatic stress (PTS) in police officers, a new study finds.

Based on biological studies of officers in major cities, the study showed that the most significant PTS predictors are the tendency to startle at sudden sounds, early career displays of mental health symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression), and certain genetic differences, including some known to influence a person's immune system.

The world's 'best of the last' tropical forests are at significant risk of being lost, according to a paper released today in Nature Ecology and Evolution. Of these pristine forests that provide key services--including carbon storage, prevention of disease transmission and water provision--only a mere 6.5 percent are formally protected.

A new study from North Carolina State University and the Georgia Institute of Technology finds that the more people know about COVID-19, the less pandemic-related stress they have. The study also found that making plans to reduce stress was also effective for older adults - but not for adults in their 40s or younger.

"COVID-19 is a new disease - it's not something that people worried about before," says Shevaun Neupert, a professor of psychology at NC State and co-author of the study. "So we wanted to see how people were responding to, and coping with, this new source of stress."

Whether you are playing Go in a park amid chirping birds, a gentle breeze and kids playing catch nearby or you are playing in a den with a ticking clock on a bookcase and a purring cat on the sofa, if the game situation is identical and clear, your next move likely would be, too, regardless of those different conditions. You'll still play the same next move despite a wide range of internal feelings or even if a few neurons here and there are just being a little erratic. How does the brain overcome unpredictable and varying disturbances to produce reliable and stable computations?

Secondary school students perform better in natural sciences and mathematics and are more motivated when digital tools are used in instruction. However, success depends on the design of the tools used. Success levels are higher when children and young adults do not study alone and when digital instruction is accompanied by paper-based teaching materials, according to the conclusion reached by one of the largest investigations on the topic, evaluating approximately 90 individual studies.

A research group from Tel Aviv University (TAU) successfully reduced metastatic spread following tumor removal surgery in colorectal cancer patients. Using a short medication treatment around the time of the surgery, the researchers were able to reduce body stress responses and physiological inflammation during this critical period, preventing the development of metastases in the years following the surgery.