Brain

A new study co-led by Simon Fraser University health sciences professor Scott Lear provides further evidence of the link between depressive symptoms and an increased risk of heart disease and early death.

The global study tracked 145,862 middle-aged participants from 21 countries and found a 20 per cent increase in cardiovascular events and death in people with four or more depressive symptoms. The risks were twice as high in urban areas--where the majority of the global population will be living by 2050-- and more than double in men.

What happens to teenagers whose parents are overbearing? A new longitudinal study sought to determine the long-term impact on youth of parenting that is psychologically controlling. Although the study did not establish causation, it found that overbearing and overcontrolling tactics by parents when children were 13 years old were associated with difficulties in social relationships and educational attainment by the time the teens reached age 32.

Water and its interactions with other substances are essential to human life. However, understanding the structure of liquid water and its hydrogen-bonding networks has been a challenge.

According to previous studies, all oxygen atoms in water trimers, tetramers, and pentamers with cyclic minimum-energy structures exist in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. In contrast, water hexamers have noncyclic three-dimensional (3D) structures. Therefore, the water hexamer was long considered to be the smallest water droplet with a 3D hydrogen-bonding network.

A new treatment for stress which combines mindfulness with hypnotherapy has shown positive results in a Baylor University pilot study.

The intervention is called "mindful hypnotherapy."

WASHINGTON, June 15--Black and female assistant principals are systematically delayed and denied promotion to principal, compared to their White or male counterparts, despite having equivalent qualifications and more experience on average, according to a new study. The findings were published in June in AERA Open, a peer-reviewed, open access journal of the American Educational Research Association.

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- In 1972, physicists J. Michael Kosterlitz and David Thouless published a groundbreaking theory of how phase changes could occur in two-dimensional materials. Experiments soon showed that the theory correctly captured the process of a helium film transitioning from a superfluid to a normal fluid, helping to usher in a new era of research on ultra-thin materials, not to mention earning Kosterlitz, a professor at Brown University, and Thouless shares of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics.

LAWRENCE -- It's been estimated that up to 88% of survivors of rape or molestation suffer from persistent nightmares that can occur multiple times per week, seemingly at random.

A new study from psychologists at the University of Kansas just published in the Journal of Traumatic Stress attempts to shed light on triggers of post-trauma nightmare occurrences - a topic that has received scant study.

When parents are under stress, household rules about screen time often get abandoned, new University of Guelph research finds.

A first of its kind in Canada, the study found parents of young children reporting high levels of life or parenting stress were less likely to monitor and limit their kids' screen use and more likely to use their own devices in front of their children.

Hartford, CT - 91% of LGBTQ adolescents in a US survey report at least one experience of bias-based bullying, according to a new study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine by researchers at the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at the University of Connecticut. This number is more than double estimates from previous studies with predominantly heterosexual youth.

FAIRFAX, Va. (June 15, 2020) -- A novel treatment for advanced mesothelioma is safe and effective and may improve the quality of life for patients who have few treatment options, according to a research abstract presented during a virtual session of the Society of Interventional Radiology's 2020 Annual Scientific Meeting on June 14. Transarterial chemoperfusion treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) comes with minimal side effects and shows promise for extending the lives of patients who have limited or no remaining treatment options.

In an opinion piece, authors say that adolescents could be more susceptible to negative effects of physical distancing during COIVD-19 as they are in a period of vulnerability where peer interaction is a vital aspect of their social development.

They call for policymakers to give urgent consideration to young people when considering easing of physical distancing measures, and that reopening schools and other social environments for young people should be a priority when it is considered safe to do so.

WASHINGTON (June 12, 2020) - Brain function depends on inhibitory cells that balance or 'brake' excitation. These neurons allow the brain to process information and also prevent runaway seizures. A new study from the George Washington University (GW), however, reports that in some critical structures of the developing brain, the inhibitory neurons cause excitation rather than suppression of brain activity. The findings, published in Science Advances, could have implications for the treatment of neonatal seizures.

Research assumes that many sleep disorders are caused by our modern lifestyle, which is characterized by pressure to constantly perform and be active. Rhythms of work and leisure activities thus set a cycle that is often at a mismatch with the body's internal biological clock. If the differences in sleep timing and duration between work days and days off become too large, this can lead to "social jetlag". With this in mind, restrictions that involve working from home could offer some benefits: flexible working hours, no commuting and potentially more time to sleep.

Physicians must be competent collaborators with team members in order to practice medicine effectively. Health professional students have limited opportunities to work and learn together during the course of their medical education. Not only is it important for students to acquire prodigious knowledge, they must also learn how to collaborate well, and the results of their efforts must be evaluated fairly to measure the effectiveness of this collaborative, active learning.

BALTIMORE, MD (June 12, 2020) - A new University of Maryland study found fentanyl tops the list of drugs detected in overdose patients at two Baltimore hospital emergency departments. The finding suggests that hospitals and medical systems throughout the United States consider adding fentanyl, a potent synthetic opioid linked to most fatal overdoses in Maryland, to their routine drug testing panels. That is the conclusion of researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) and the Center for Substance Abuse Research (CESAR) at the University of Maryland, College Park.