Brain

A brain chemical called noradrenaline is responsible for our responses to uncertain situations - helping us to learn quickly and adapt our behaviour, a new study has found.

The COVID-19 pandemic has plunged us all into a state of uncertainty. In a rapidly changing situation where it is hard to know what will happen next, making decisions can be difficult. Researchers at the University of Cambridge and University College London created a simplistic model of this uncertain situation in the lab, to understand how our brain responds.

What The Study Did: This Viewpoint discusses the need for new and better testing for COVID-19 to help prevent community transmission, and it explains the limitations of such testing, including performance in the asymptomatic phase and access in resource-limited communities.

Authors: Yukari C. Manabe, M.D., of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

New Rochelle, NY, November 12, 2020--Future human missions to Mars depend on field research in an environment similar to that of Mars. It will enable the evaluation of operational concepts and optimization of strategies. The goals and results of the AMADEE-18 Mars analog mission are detailed in a special collection of articles in the peer-reviewed journal Astrobiology. Click here to read the articles now.

BUFFALO, N.Y. - If dispositional mindfulness can teach us anything about how we react to stress, it might be an unexpected lesson on its ineffectiveness at managing stress as it's happening, according to new research from the University at Buffalo.

When the goal is "not to sweat the small stuff," mindfulness appears to offer little toward achieving that end.

New Rochelle, NY, November 13, 2020--Patients are seeking plastic surgery in record numbers, citing their appearance on Zoom as a cause. Of particular concern are noses and wrinkles, according to Facial Plastic Surgery & Aesthetic Medicine. Click here to read the article now.

Using NASA satellite imagery and software processing approaches, a group of geoscientists has discovered a landslide-generated tsunami threat in Barry Arm, Alaska, that will likely affect tourists and locals in the surrounding area in the next 20 years.

The development of functional nanomaterials has been a major landmark in the history of materials science. Nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 5 to 500 nm have unprecedented properties, such as high catalytic activity, compared to their bulk material counterparts. Moreover, as particles become smaller, exotic quantum phenomena become more prominent. This has enabled scientists to produce materials and devices with characteristics that had been only dreamed of, especially in the fields of electronics, catalysis, and optics.

As the COVID-19 pandemic began in the United States, universities were forced to make difficult operational decisions to help slow the spread of the disease and protect their students, faculty, staff, and community members. Guidance from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other agencies informed these decisions about non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI)--the only interventions available at the early stages of the pandemic.

A new study outlines ways colleges and universities can update their curricula to prepare the workforce for a new wave of quantum technology jobs. Three researchers, including Rochester Institute of Technology Associate Professor Ben Zwickl, suggested steps that need to be taken in a new paper in Physical Review Physics Education Research after interviewing managers at more than 20 quantum technology companies across the U.S.

Wales faces a wave of mental health problems in the wake of Covid-19, with younger adults, women and people from deprived areas suffering the most.

That is the warning contained in new research, led by Swansea University's Professor Nicola Gray and Cardiff University's Professor Robert Snowden, which examines the pandemic's impact on the mental wellbeing of the Welsh population.

The initial findings of the survey reveal that around half of the 13,000 participants showed clinically significant psychological distress, with around 20 per cent suffering severe effects.

Disasters like hurricanes and tornadoes are occurring with increasing frequency and severity across the globe. In addition to impacting local communities, infrastructure and the economy, these disasters also can lead to severe emotional distress and anxiety for those living in their paths.

A team of researchers including the University of Delaware's Jennifer Horney, founding director of the epidemiology program in the College of Health Sciences, examined the impact of 281 natural disasters on suicide rates during a 12-year span.

(Los Angeles - Nov 11, 2020) According to the National Institutes of Health, opioid misuse and addiction in the United States is a national crisis, with an economic burden upwards of $78 billion. Opioids are useful for pain management following surgery and other major procedures, but until now there have been no recommendations guiding safe use of opioids in children.

Carbon dioxide fuels photosynthesis, the process by which plants generate their food in the form of carbohydrates. The atmosphere's carbon dioxide levels are rapidly increasing, but there is uncertainty about whether plants can turn these extra resources into higher yields while retaining nutritional quality.

Toronto, ON - Young adults may be less susceptible to the serious adverse health effects of COVID-19, but they have not been absolved from economic and employment downturns -- and there has been little research on how employment insecurity has affected them. New research now shows a strong association between employment insecurity and common symptoms of anxiety and depression among young adults in the U.S.

Osaka, Japan -- It's a fact of life that things break down. And when they do, whether it's your car, the roof, or a blocked artery, there are people who we can call to help with the repairs. A lesser known fact of life is that DNA also regularly breaks down and needs to be repaired. Researchers led by Noriyuki Sugo at Osaka University in Japan have been studying natural DNA repairmen in the developing brain. In a new study, they show that an enzyme known as Polβ prevents breaks in the DNA of specific neurons in the brain's hippocampus soon after birth.