Brain

Stress in early childhood leads to faster maturation of certain brain regions during adolescence. In contrast, stress experienced later in life leads to slower maturation of the adolescent brain. This is the outcome of a long-term study conducted by researchers of Radboud University in which 37 subjects have been monitored for almost 20 years. The findings will be published in Scientific Reports on 15 June.

People who have greater levels of mindfulness -- or the tendency to maintain attention on and awareness of the present moment -- are better able to cope with the pain of being rejected by others, according to a new study led by a team of Virginia Commonwealth University researchers.

VANCOUVER, Wash. - While tuition inflation presents a challenge for many college-bound students, an area of growing concern for many universities is "grade inflation" -- in part caused when instructors grade more leniently to discourage students from retaliating by giving low teaching evaluations.

Washington State University researchers say instructors can stop worrying about evaluation revenge as long as they use practices in the classroom that students perceive as fair.

A new scientific report from an international team of psychological researchers aims to resolve the so-called "reading wars," emphasizing the importance of teaching phonics in establishing fundamental reading skills in early childhood.

WASHINGTON -- A systemwide change to the culture and climate in higher education is needed to prevent and effectively respond to sexual harassment, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. There is no evidence that current policies, procedures, and approaches - which often focus on symbolic compliance with the law and on avoiding liability -- have resulted in a significant reduction in sexual harassment.

Even with a highly skilled neurosurgeon, the most effective anesthesia, and all the other advances of modern medicine, most of us would cringe at the thought of undergoing cranial surgery today.

After all, who needs a hole in the head? Yet for thousands of years, trepanation--the act of scraping, cutting, or drilling an opening into the cranium--was practiced around the world, primarily to treat head trauma, but possibly to quell headaches, seizures and mental illnesses, or even to expel perceived demons.

A USC research team identified 150 proteins affecting cell activity and brain development that contribute to mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar condition and depression.

It's the first time these molecules, which are associated with the disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein linked to mental disorders, have been identified. The scientists developed new tools involving stem cells to determine chemical reactions the proteins use to influence cell functions and nerve growth in people.

A key recommendation in a new Canadian guideline on managing chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is to screen all people born between 1945 and 1975 for the disease, a departure from previous guidelines. The guideline, which contains comprehensive recommendations for diagnosing and managing the disease in diverse patient populations, is published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

A quarter of intensive care patients are readmitted to hospital shortly after returning home and some of these readmissions are avoidable, research suggests.

High levels of carer stress, difficulty understanding health and social care packages and psychological trauma all contribute to high rates of return, the findings show.

Pinpointing the reasons for unplanned readmissions is key to developing care packages that support patients at home and could save vital funds, researchers say.

Symptoms associated with borderline personality disorder -- a severe and chronic mood disorder characterized by an inability to manage strong emotions -- tend to worsen just before and during menses, according to a study in Psychological Medicine.