Brain

Mindfulness has been shown to reduce negative emotions in both healthy individuals as well as patients with psychological problems. Studies have also shown that mindfulness is effective for treating clinical emotional problems like anxiety, depression, stress and trauma related disorders.

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - People with drug-resistant epilepsy also can have deleterious neuropsychiatric symptoms like anxiety, depression, psychosis and impaired memory. These have negative impacts on quality of life, and there is an unmet need to improve therapy for such patients. Diagnosing and monitoring such neurobehavioral symptoms is challenging because their presentation can overlap with seizures.

URBANA, Ill. - School test scores often show gaps in performance between white and non-white students. Understanding the complex reasons behind this can help reduce those gaps and promote social equality, explains Mary Paula Arends-Kuenning, associate professor of agricultural and consumer economics at the University of Illinois.

Arends-Kuenning is co-author of a study that analyzes math test scores for 9th-grade students in Brazil and breaks down the characteristics associated with performance gaps between different racial groups.

A study out of the University of Hyogo in Awaji, Japan, details the stress-reducing benefits to office workers that even a small plant situated within easy viewing can impart.

Masahiro Toyoda, Yuko Yokota, Marni Barnes, and Midori Kaneko explored the practical use of indoor plants to boost mental health among employees typically removed from exposure to healthy green environments.

Without a doubt, Tyrannosaurus rex is the most famous dinosaur in the world. The 40-foot-long predator with bone crushing teeth inside a five-foot long head are the stuff of legend. Now, a look within the bones of two mid-sized, immature T. rex allow scientists to learn about the tyrant king's terrible teens as well.

Tuberculosis (TB), an ancient disease, is the leading infectious cause of death globally, yet the world's only licensed TB vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), was developed a century ago. Given to infants via a needle placed just under the skin, BCG protects babies from a form of the disease called disseminated TB but is far less effective at preventing pulmonary TB, the major cause of illness and deaths, in teens or adults.

A randomized controlled study recently published in Ethnicity & Disease in their Autumn 2019 Hypertension issue found that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique helps to prevent abnormal enlargement of the heart compared to health education (HE) controls. Also known as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), it can lead to chronic heart failure and death, and is especially prevalent among African Americans.

Risk factor for cardiovascular disease

Silicene consists of a single layer of silicon atoms. In contrast to the ultra-flat material graphene, which is made of carbon, silicene shows surface irregularities that influence its electronic properties. Now, physicists from the University of Basel have been able to precisely determine this corrugated structure. As they report in the journal PNAS, their method is also suitable for analyzing other two-dimensional materials.

The diverse colours, shapes and patterns of fish are captivating. Despite such diversity, a general feature that we can observe in fish such as salmon or tuna once they are served in a dish like sushi, is the distinct 'V' patterns in their meat. While this appears to be genetically observed in the muscle arrangement of most fish species, how such a generic 'V' pattern arises is puzzling.

When electrons collide with positrons, their antimatter counterparts, unstable pairs can form in which both types of particle orbit around each other. Named 'positronium', physicists have now produced this intriguing structure using a diverse range of positron targets - from atomic gases to metal films. However, they have yet to achieve the same result from vapours of nanoparticles, whose unique properties are influenced by the 'gases' of free electrons they contain in well-defined, nanoscopic regions.

ANN ARBOR--Leftover prescription opioids pose big risks to kids, yet most parents keep their own and their child's unused painkillers even after they're no longer medically necessary for pain.

But a new University of Michigan study suggests that convenient disposal paired with tailored risk education can improve those numbers.

Gender-tailored methods to address the harmful mental health effects of childhood adversity may help alleviate the current opioid crisis and make treatment more effective, concludes University of Massachusetts Amherst epidemiology researcher Elizabeth Evans in her latest research about opioid use disorder (OUD).

HOUSTON - (Dec. 20, 2019) - The solar wind that pummels the Earth's dayside magnetosphere causes turbulence, like air over a wing. Physicists at Rice University have developed new methods to characterize how that influences space weather on the nightside.

It's rarely quiet up there. The solar wind streams around the Earth and cruises off into the night, but closer to the planet, parcels of plasma get caught in the turbulence and sink back toward Earth. That turbulence causes big ripples in the plasma.

Since the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) built its first superconducting devices for counting photons (the smallest units of light) in the 1990s, these once-rare detectors have become popular research tools all over the world. Now, NIST has taken a step toward enabling universal standards for these devices, which are becoming increasingly important in science and industry.

CHAPEL HILL, N.C. (December 19, 2019) - A new study that sought to find out whether serotonin reuptake inhibitors or trauma-focused psychotherapy is more effective in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) concluded there is insufficient evidence at present to make that determination.