Brain

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- Cigarette smoking causes more than 480,000 deaths each year in the United States, according to federal government data -- and some smokers find it nearly impossible to quit. Many of these smokers use regular, or combustible, cigarettes.

Physicians and scientists have for many years explored the health benefits and drawbacks of nicotine-based alternatives to cigarettes, and new research offers significant evidence that "pod" e-cigarettes are less damaging to health than traditional cigarettes.

Rates of both periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease are elevated in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. New research published in Arthritis & Rheumatology suggests that immune responses to certain bacteria that cause periodontal disease may play a role in patients' higher cardiovascular disease risk.

Among 197 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, those with antibody responses to common periodontal pathogens were more likely to also show signs of atherosclerosis.

In a study of women aged 80 years and older, living in locations with higher exposures to air pollution was associated with increased depressive symptoms. The findings are published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

Washington, November 17, 2020--New research finds that student exposure to violent crime in urban elementary schools is linked to higher transfer rates, with students ineligible for free- or reduced-price meals and students from safer neighborhoods more likely to leave than their less advantaged peers. The study was published today in the American Educational Research Journal, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association.

Weak students in high-performing math classes, especially boys, feel more shame compared to students in low-performing math classes. Stronger students, in turn, feel more bored and enjoy mathematics less in high-performing math classes, according to a new study.

According to a new study from Copenhagen Business School, on the role of privacy and decentralization in the cryptocurrency community, developers are creating cryptocurrencies in such a way that regulatory oversight will not be possible, neither will any wait and see attempt to override them in the future. The research is published in the Journal of Information Technology.

Significantly higher numbers of Generation Z boys and girls in the UK are dieting to lose weight, and are likely to overestimate their own weight, finds a new UCL-led study.

The research, published in JAMA Pediatrics, found that girls who are trying to lose weight are also more likely to experience depressive symptoms than in previous years.

In 2015, 42% of 14-year-old girls and boys said they currently were trying to lose weight, compared to 30% in 2005.

California's Black and Hispanic communities may be falling further behind whites in the quality of care they receive for heart attacks, despite recent medical efforts aimed at improving the standards of care for these populations, according to a new study led by researchers at UC San Francisco.

In response to ongoing health disparities, emergency management services nationwide have implemented protocols to better coordinate care and get patients directly to hospitals that are equipped and staffed to quickly unblock coronary arteries and restore blood circulation to the heart.

A new national survey, looking at how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted young US adults' loneliness, reveals "significant depressive symptoms" in 80% of participants.

Over 1,000 Americans aged 18-35 took part in the online anonymous questionnaire, which also asked the subjects to report on their anxiety and substance use.

LA JOLLA, CA--Deep within the brain, a small almond-shaped region called the amygdala plays a vital role in how we exhibit emotion, behavior and motivation. Understandably, it's also strongly implicated in alcohol abuse, making it a long-running focus of Marisa Roberto, PhD, professor in Scripps Research's Department of Molecular Medicine.

AURORA, Colo. (November 16, 2020) - Researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found that many pregnant Black Americans have low levels of choline, an essential nutrient that aids in prenatal brain development. Stress caused by institutional racism may play a role.

Wearing a facemask helps limit the spread of COVID-19 by reducing respiratory droplets and aerosols spewed into the air when people breathe, talk, laugh, sneeze or cough. But the physical barrier created by masks has prompted concerns that they might impair the cardiopulmonary system by making it harder to breathe, by altering the flow of inhaled oxygen and exhaled carbon dioxide and by increasing dyspnea -- a medical term that describe shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, especially during physical activity.

The stress and anxiety experienced by the general population during Israel's first lockdown brought about a significant rise in orofacial and jaw pain, as well as jaw-clenching in the daytime and teeth-grinding at night, according to a new study from Tel Aviv University (TAU).

The research also found that women suffered more from these symptoms more than men, and that 35- to 55-year-olds suffered most.

People who purchase a firearm during the pandemic are more likely to be suicidal than other firearm owners, according to a Rutgers study.

The study, published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, found that about 70 percent of those who bought a firearm during the COVID-19 pandemic reported having suicidal thoughts throughout their lives, compared to 37 percent of the rest of the community of gun owners.

One of the unintended consequences of the COVID-19 lockdowns in England earlier this year has been a 25 per cent increase in the prescription of antibiotics by dentists, according to a new study published today in the British Dental Journal (BDJ). Prescription rates were the highest in London, with an increase of 60 per cent for the same period and the lowest increases, less than 10 per cent, were in the South-West of England.