Brain

PHILADELPHIA (June 24, 2020) - Sudden school closures in the United States were undertaken to reduce COVID-19 transmission this spring. Those closures were not typical, and how and when schools reopen will create a set of new norms, with unique stressors for students, families, school personnel, and communities.

Problems in how the brain recognizes and processes novel information lie at the root of psychosis, researchers from the University of Cambridge and King's College London have found. Their discovery that defective brain signals in patients with psychosis could be altered with medication paves the way for new treatments for the disease.

The United States is home to more than 21 million military veterans, many of whom have difficulty reintegrating into civilian life. A staggering 20 percent of them suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the most common trauma-induced mental illnesses. Moreover, it is estimated that 20 veterans die of suicide each day, resulting in about 6,000 deaths by suicide each year.

Herd immunity to Covid-19 could be achieved with less people being infected than previously estimated according to new research.

Mother's chronic prenatal psychological distress and elevated hair cortisol concentrations are associated with gut microbiota composition of the infant, according to a new publication from the FinnBrain research project of the University of Turku, Finland. The results help to better understand how prenatal stress can be connected to infant growth and development. The study has been published in the esteemed Psychoneuroendocrinology journal.

NEW YORK, NY (June 23, 2020) -- During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, health care workers on the front lines had high levels of acute stress, anxiety, and depression, a study by researchers at Columbia University Irving Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian has found.

Levels of stress, anxiety and depression were particularly high among those with the greatest amount of patient contact and interaction.

Among the findings:

More than half had high levels of acute stress.

Nearly half screened positive for depressive symptoms.

The BioScience Talks podcast features discussions of topical issues related to the biological sciences.

An innovative use of focused ultrasound being pioneered at the University of Virginia School of Medicine is showing promise against glioblastoma, the deadliest brain tumor, and could prove useful against other difficult-to-treat cancers.

The technique hits cancer cells with a drug that sensitizes them to sound waves, then blasts them with focused ultrasound. The sound waves create tiny bubbles inside the cancer cells, causing them to die.

AMHERST, Mass. - Over the last 20 years, many academic institutions have conducted surveys in STEM disciplines, seeking ways to address and increase awareness of discrimination and racism that are major obstacles to attracting and retaining women - particularly underrepresented minority women - to diversify the STEM workforce.

Researchers have created a Bose-Einstein condensate with record speed, creating the fascinating phase of matter in about 100 femtoseconds. To get an idea of how quick that is, hundred femtoseconds compared to one second is proportionally the same as a day compared to the age of the universe. The project was the result of a collaboration between Aalto University the and University of Eastern Finland.

Jan Korbel and Oliver Stegle, both group leaders at EMBL Heidelberg, have performed a survey of fellow life scientists in Germany, Spain, the UK, Italy, France, Canada, Turkey, and the USA to learn how the current crisis, with partial or complete institutional shutdowns, is affecting their work.

19 June 2020, Singapore - A study conducted by clinicians from KK Women's and Children's Hospital (KKH) and researchers at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU), which evaluated and demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of a KKH-developed novel clinical protocol to screen and triage women with threatened miscarriages, has been published in the journal, Scientific Reports.

What The Study Did: State guidelines for ventilator allocation decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic are examined in this review.

Authors: Gina M. Piscitello, M.D., of Rush University in Chicago, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.12606)

In a paper published by the Royal Society, a team of Bristol researchers observed the exploratory behaviour of ants to inform the development of a more efficient mathematical sampling technique.

Animals like ants have the challenge of exploring their environment to look for food and potential places to live. With a large group of individuals, like an ant colony, a large amount of time would be wasted if the ants repeatedly explored the same empty areas.

Prof. LI Chuanfeng, XU Jinshi, and XU Xiaoye from University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), collaborating with Prof. CHEN Jingling from Nankai University, realized the non-contacing exchange of the polarization of two photons, revealing the unique quantum characteristics of the "Quantum Cheshire Cat".

The study, published in Nature Communications, deepens the understanding of the fundamental problem of physics, "what is physical reality."