Brain

Everyone knows cigarette smoking causes cancer and as a result, prices and advertising are closely regulated to discourage youth from starting. But another cancer risk, indoor tanning, which has been shown to cause melanoma, lags in regulation. Researchers at the Colorado School of Public Health have found that the tanning industry uses marketing strategies that appeal to adolescents and young adults, including unlimited tanning packages, discounts, and even offering free tanning when paired with other services like an apartment rental or gym membership.

Bottom Line: This study, called a systematic review and meta-analysis, combined the results of 23 studies with nearly 42,000 participants to summarize associations between sexting by adolescents, sexual behavior and mental health risk factors. The results suggest sexting was associated with sexual activity, multiple sex partners, a lack of contraception use, delinquent behavior, anxiety/depression, alcohol and drug use, and smoking. Some associations between sexting, sexual behaviors and mental health factors were stronger in younger compared with older adolescents.

Social media use is contributing to poor mental health in Indonesia, research presented in a paper by Sujarwoto Sujarwoto, Gindo Tampubolon and Adi Cilik Pierewan has found.

The paper examines the specific effect of social media on mental health in the developing country.

It found that social media had a detrimental effect on mental health - as has been documented globally. But the authors noted specifics to developing countries such as Indonesia.

CATONSVILLE, MD, June 17, 2019 - While serious economic and societal issues continue to swirl around the gender pay gap, new research published in the INFORMS journal Organization Science shows one area where this inequality is starting to disappear--higher education. Researchers have found that the gender pay gap disappears at more prestigious universities.

Some languages -- like English -- are tricky to pick up easily.

Young children learning to read and write English often need to identify patterns in words to be able to read and spell them. For example, knowing the "Magic E" syllable pattern can allow a child to understand why an E at the end of a word like "rate" significantly alters the word's sound from "rat."

Also, knowing that the words "one" and "two" are irregularly spelled helps prevent the child from trying to sound out the underlying sounds when seeing the word in print.

A better understanding of terrestrial flux dynamics will come from elucidating the integrated effects of climate and vegetation constraints on gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP), according to Dr. Shutao Chen, Associate professor at Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology.

Free fingers have many obvious advantages on land, such as in locomotion and grasping, while webbed fingers are typical of aquatic or gliding animals. But both amphibians and amniotes--which include mammals, reptiles, and birds--can have webbed digits. In new research from Japan, scientists show for the first time that during embryo development, some animal species detect the presence of atmospheric oxygen, which triggers removal of interdigital webbing. Their research appears June 13 in the journal Developmental Cell.

Spending at least two hours a week in nature may be a crucial threshold for promoting health and wellbeing, according to a new large-scale study.

Aphids and the plant viruses they transmit cause billions of dollars in crop damage around the world every year. Researchers in Michelle Heck's lab at the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Boyce Thompson Institute are examining the relationship at the molecular level, which could lead to new methods for controlling the pests.

Swedish scientists say that eating disorders should be considered just that - eating disorders, rather than mental disorders. The proof, they say, is in the eating.

Foods that look the same on nutrition labels can have vastly different effects on our microbiomes, report researchers in a paper publishing June 12 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe. The researchers' observations of participants' diets and stool samples over the course of 17 days suggested that the correlation between what we eat and what's happening with our gut microbes might not be as straightforward as we thought. This adds an increased level of complexity to research focused on improving health by manipulating the microbiome.

Interdisciplinarity is becoming increasingly important in research. Yet there are structures in place that make careers in science more difficult for interdisciplinary researchers, according to Ruth Müller, Professor of Science and Technology Policy at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). In this interview, she talks about her study on a research center in Sweden and about how existing hurdles could be overcome and interdisciplinary research could be promoted in more sustainable ways.

Inhaling dangerous particulates is a hazard of coal mining, mold remediation, sandblasting ... and dentistry.

BINGHAMTON, NY - Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience bullying than children without ASD and this bullying gets worse with age, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Hannah Morton, a graduate student in the clinical psychology PhD program at Binghamton University, aimed to conceptualize bullying in children with ASD in order to specifically identify different bullying and behavior types. Her research also emphasizes the need to establish better definitions of bullying behaviors.

Most studies into the impact of technology use on psychological wellbeing rely on flawed measures say researchers.

Surveys are often used to understand how people use their smartphone, but these are poorly related to actual smartphone use when measured with an app.

This means that existing evidence suggesting that screen time is "addictive" cannot be used to justify any change of policy.

The UK Parliament's Science and Technology Committee recently held an inquiry into social media use including the effects of screen time on the health of young people.