Brain

Expanding the number of grammar schools is unlikely to promote social mobility by providing more opportunities for disadvantaged pupils, a new study published in Educational Review finds.

The lab of Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and their international colleagues have used ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. Though unprecedented in itself, the scientists also used their experimental success to develop a theory of how to create electron flashes within zeptosecond (10-21 of a second) timeframes, using already existing technology.

Here's the neuroscience of a neglected banana (and a lot of other things in daily life): whenever you look at its color - green in the store, then yellow, and eventually brown on your countertop - your mind categorizes it as unripe, ripe, and then spoiled. A new study that tracked how the brain turns simple sensory inputs, such as "green," into meaningful categories, such as "unripe," shows that the information follows a progression through many regions of the cortex, and not exactly in the way many neuroscientists would predict.

All liars have classic tells: the lack of eye contact, the fidgeting, the overly elaborate stories. Except when they don't.

In fact, researchers say, the most adept deceivers often don't present any of those signs and, further, the average observer's tendency to rely on such visual cues impedes their ability to tell when someone is lying. But those detection skills can be improved markedly with as little as one hour of training.

Cellular functions rely on several communications networks that allow cells to rapidly respond to signals affecting the organism. A new study published in the prestigious journal Molecular Cell has revealed a mechanism that shuts down a major cell-to-cell communications pathway implicated in a number of diseases. INRS professor Nicolas Doucet and his research team contributed to the discovery of this new molecular switch, shedding new light on the role of receptor tyrosine kinases, a well-known protein family whose function is still being explored.

A mother's diet during pregnancy may have an effect on the composition of her baby's gut microbiome - the community of bacteria living in the gut - and the effect may vary by delivery mode, according to study published in the open access journal Microbiome.

Sara Lundgren, lead author of the study said: "Our study demonstrates an association of a readily modifiable factor, maternal diet, with the infant gut microbiome. This knowledge may be key for developing evidence-based dietary recommendations for pregnant and lactating women."

New UK research has found that a new mindfulness based approach to tinnitus could transform the treatment of the condition.

Although it's far from perfect by virtually any measure - whether poverty rates, violence, access to education, racism and prejudice or any number of others - the world continues to improve. Why, then, do polls consistently show that people believe otherwise?

The answer, Daniel Gilbert says, may lie in a phenomenon called "prevalence induced concept change."

Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science have discovered a circuit in the brain that is necessary for unlearning fear. Published in Nature Communications, the study details the role of dopamine in ensuring that rats stop being afraid when there isn't anything to be afraid of anymore.

TORONTO, June 26, 2018 - Antidepressant use in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a 20 per cent increase in likelihood of death and a 15 per cent increase in likelihood of hospitalization due to related symptoms, finds a new study led by researchers at St. Michael's Hospital.