Brain

A mother's diet during pregnancy may have an effect on the composition of her baby's gut microbiome - the community of bacteria living in the gut - and the effect may vary by delivery mode, according to study published in the open access journal Microbiome.

Sara Lundgren, lead author of the study said: "Our study demonstrates an association of a readily modifiable factor, maternal diet, with the infant gut microbiome. This knowledge may be key for developing evidence-based dietary recommendations for pregnant and lactating women."

New UK research has found that a new mindfulness based approach to tinnitus could transform the treatment of the condition.

Although it's far from perfect by virtually any measure - whether poverty rates, violence, access to education, racism and prejudice or any number of others - the world continues to improve. Why, then, do polls consistently show that people believe otherwise?

The answer, Daniel Gilbert says, may lie in a phenomenon called "prevalence induced concept change."

Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science have discovered a circuit in the brain that is necessary for unlearning fear. Published in Nature Communications, the study details the role of dopamine in ensuring that rats stop being afraid when there isn't anything to be afraid of anymore.

TORONTO, June 26, 2018 - Antidepressant use in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a 20 per cent increase in likelihood of death and a 15 per cent increase in likelihood of hospitalization due to related symptoms, finds a new study led by researchers at St. Michael's Hospital.

Refraining from bad behavior toward a significant other during stressful life events is more important than showing positive behavior, according to a Baylor University study.

Compared with positive gestures, negative ones tend to trigger more intense and immediate responses, according to the study. And how a couple works together during trying times is associated with individual well-being as well as satisfaction with the relationship.

A new Portland State University study suggests that universities should do more to invest in training graduate students in 21st century teaching methods, and that doing so does not mean that they would be any less prepared for a career in research.

In fact, the study found that Ph.D. students who are trained in evidence-based teaching -- methods that emphasize interactive, collaborative and hands-on learning rather than just traditional lecture -- can be just as competitive of researchers, if not better, than those who are not.

(Madison, Wis.) June 21, 2018--Studying abroad can impart a number of valuable, lifelong skills in students, including improved foreign language skills, appreciation for other cultures and, importantly, access to unique learning opportunities only available in certain countries and settings. However, less than 10 percent of U.S. college students participate in study abroad experiences. The cost of these experiences remains a major impediment to many students.

(Madison, Wis.) June 21, 2018--For many students, essay tests are a source of dread and anxiety. But for professors, these tests provide an excellent way to assess a student's depth of knowledge and critical-thinking skills.

Study highlights population mental health impact of events widely perceived to be a symptom of structural racism.

Police killings of unarmed black Americans have adverse effects on the mental health of black American adults in the general population, according to a new population-based study. With police killings of unarmed black Americans widely perceived to be a symptom of structural racism, the findings highlight the role of structural racism as a driver of population health disparities, and support recent calls to treat police killings as a public health issue.