Culture

A new study in animals suggests that the social and interpersonal problems associated with opioid addiction might be reversible.

As rural masses migrate to urban areas, populations grow, and people work toward better living standards, global food system sustainability pays a high price, according to a new analysis spanning low- to high-income countries. The study, which was published April 3 in the scientific journal PLOS ONE, shows that only one major global driver - the increase in international trade flows - appears to have a net positive effect on global food systems sustainability.

By observing electrons that have been accelerated to extremely high energies, scientists are able to unlock clues about the particles that make up our universe.

Accelerating electrons to such high energies in a laboratory setting, however, is challenging: typically, the more energetic the electrons, the bigger the particle accelerator. For instance, to discover the Higgs boson--the recently observed "God particle," responsible for mass in the universe--scientists at the CERN laboratory in Switzerland used a particle accelerator nearly 17 miles long.

The use of artificial intelligence (AI), technologies that can interact with the environment and simulate human intelligence, has the potential to significantly change the way we work. Successfully integrating AI into organizations depends on workers' level of trust in the technology. A new review examined two decades of research on how people develop trust in AI. The authors concluded that the way AI is represented, or "embodied," and AI's capabilities contribute to developing trust.

A healthcare 'passport' to access NHS and other wellbeing services has been beneficial for the mental health of veterans and provides them with a sense of identity, according to research published in the BMJ Military Health.

A study conducted by two associate professors of marketing at The University of Texas at Arlington shows that people are more likely to base decisions on anecdotal information instead of facts when they feel anxious and vulnerable.

Traci Freling and Ritesh Saini, both in the College of Business, published "When poignant stories outweigh cold hard facts: A meta-analysis of the anecdotal bias" in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

Modern scientific research on materials relies heavily on exploring their behavior at the atomic and molecular scales. For that reason, scientists are constantly on the hunt for new and improved methods for data gathering and analysis of materials at those scales.

New research from Stanford University has found that stress can hinder our ability to develop informed plans by preventing us from being able to make decisions based on memory.

According to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), groundwater supplies half of the world's population with fresh water and makes up 43% of the water used in irrigation. Despite its importance, it is calculated that about a third of the world's greatest aquifers are drying up quickly and that 20% are being overexploited. In Spain, a country where a large number of crops are watered with groundwater, scientific data show that the extraction rate is much higher than the water replenishing rate.

The tiny hairs found on plant roots play a pivotal role in helping reduce soil erosion, a new study has found. The research, led by the University of Bristol and published in Communications Biology, provides compelling evidence that when root hairs interact with the surrounding soil they reduce soil erosion and increase soil cohesion by binding soil particles.

Nagano prefecture is home to a group of people effected with a rare genetic neurodegenerative disorder called familial amyloid polyneuropathies (FAP). This disease impacts the gene encoding protein transthyretin (TTR) which is produced in the liver and also eyes. Liver transplants are often a treatment for this disease, but severe eyesight problems such as cloudiness and glaucoma remains, despite such procedures. This research is a retrospective observational study of what ophthalmologists have experienced in their practice over the years.

New research has found that allotment gardening promotes positive body image, which measures someone's appreciation of their own body and its functions, and an acceptance of bodily imperfections.

The study, published in the journal Ecopsychology and led by Professor Viren Swami of Anglia Ruskin University (ARU), involved 84 gardeners from 12 urban allotment sites in north London.

Key Takeaways:

We propose a new way to measure how forward-looking consumers are based on their buying behavior, conditioning on their inventories at home.

Our method applies to storable goods such as laundry detergent, disinfectant spray, disinfectant wipes, toilet papers, etc.

Our estimates suggest that a consumer's planning horizon is roughly about 8 weeks.

Consumer buying behavior heavily depends on their expectation about future prices.

Nearly 2 million years ago, three hominin genera - Australopithecus, Paranthropus and the earliest Homo erectus lineage - lived as contemporaries in the karst landscape of what is now South Africa, according to a new geochronological evaluation of the hominin fossil-rich Drimolen Paleocave complex. Combined with other evidence, authors Andy Herries et al.

Addressing a major source of uncertainty in glacier-flow models, researchers present a new slip law to describe glaciers sliding on soft, deformable material. The findings may help create a universal slip law that could be used to constrain the models of the glaciers and ice sheets that could have the greatest potential impacts on global sea-level rise. Glaciers slip, slide and surge over a wide variety of terrain, ranging from solid bedrock (hard-bedded) to loose gravel-like sediments (soft-bedded).