Electrocatalytic reaction, like other heterogenous catalytic reaction, commonly consists of multiple elementary reaction steps. For example, alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) involves: H2O + e- ?Had + OH- (Volmer step) and H2O + Had + e- ? H2 + OH- (Heyrovsky step) or Had + Had ? H2 (Tafel step). Compared with acidic HER, the Volmer step in alkaline electrolyte requires appropriate water molecule adsorption energy and extra energy to dissociate water molecule, leading to much slower kinetics.

Hyoliths are extinct invertebrates with calcareous shells that were common constituents of the Cambrian fauna and formed a minor component of benthic faunas throughout the Palaeozoic until their demise in the end-Permian mass extinction. The biological affinity of hyoliths has long been controversial and the group has been compared with a number of animal phyla, most frequently the Mollusca or the Sipuncula, although other researchers have considered hyoliths as a separate "extinct phylum".

Leipzig. An international research team was able to experimentally show in the laboratory a completely new reaction path for the largest natural sulfur source in the atmosphere. The team from the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), the University of Innsbruck and the University of Oulu are now reporting in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters on the new degradation mechanism for dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is released mainly by the oceans.

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas and one of the main stratospheric ozone depleting substances on the planet. According to new research, we are releasing more of it into the atmosphere than previously thought.

(Carlisle, Pa.) - New research published this month in the Southern Economic Journal reveals job losses during the Great Recession (2007-2009) may be partly responsible for the recent drop in U.S. birth rates. Further, researchers found job losses for men and women affect fertility in different ways--as does women's age and marital status--shedding light on possible drivers of the falling U.S. birth rate, which has been slipping since 2007.

Whether you are a company or a reporter trying to boost your visibility online, what is ok to do and what is considered "unfairly gaming the system?''

Is it ok to use keywords that you know people are searching for, but not ok for "bots'' to direct traffic to your site? Will you be punished, suspended or banned from Google, Facebook and Instagram because how you strategize with the algorithm is deemed illegitimate?

Essential genes are often expressed with high variability during the development of cells. Scientists call this phenomenon "biological noise" and suspect that it is also decisive for the fate of cells, i.e. the developmental pathway a cell takes. Max Planck researcher Dominic Grün now presents a method based on single-cell data to quantify this variability in gene expression. The advantage of the so-called VarID method is that the noise of gene expression can be measured across groups of very similar or related cell states.

The University of Surrey and King's College London have developed a new machine learning algorithm (AI) that could transform the way we monitor major infrastructure - such as dams and bridges.

In a paper published by the journal Structural Health Monitoring, researchers from Surrey and Kings detail how they created an AI system named SHMnet to analyse and assess the damage of bolt connections used in metallic structures.

New Rochelle, NY, November 18, 2019--A new study has shown that the majority of women (82.5%) and men (65.1%) working at an academic medical center reported at least one incident of sexual harassment by staff, students, and faculty during the previous year. Similarly, a substantial proportion of women (64.4%) and men (44.1%) who worked with patients reported experiencing sexual harassment from patients or their families within the prior year, according to the study published in Journal of Women's Health, a peer-reviewed publication from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.

Over the years, scientists have recorded same-sex sexual behavior in more than 1,500 animal species, from snow geese to common toads. And for just as long evolutionary biologists studying these behaviors have grappled with what has come to be known as a "Darwinian paradox": How can these behaviors be so persistent when they offer no opportunity to produce offspring?

While it makes sense that families living below the poverty line have a difficult time covering their energy bills, new University of Wisconsin Oshkosh research shows the reverse to be true as well ... high energy bills can lead a household into poverty.

The nationwide study--led by UWO environmental sociologist Jeremiah Bohr and published Nov.15 in the peer-reviewed journal Social Forces--indicates that dedicating inordinate amounts of income to energy services can threaten a family's well-being over time.

AMES, Iowa - Advertising budgets and strategies used by beer companies appear to influence underage drinking, according to new research from Iowa State University.

The findings show that the amount of money spent on advertising strongly predicted the percentage of teens who had heard of, preferred and tried different beer brands. For example, 99% of middle school and high school students surveyed for the study had heard of Budweiser and Bud Light - the top spender on advertising - and 44% said they had used the brand.

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Conventional wisdom dictates that workers who "lawyer up" in workplace disputes would be more likely to improve their chances at securing a better outcome, but in an alternative dispute resolution context such as arbitration, employers can all but cancel out those positive effects, says a new paper by a University of Illinois expert who studies labor and employment arbitration.

WASHINGTON (November 18, 2019) - Nearly two-thirds of American parents of children under 18 (65%) report at least one economic, environmental, or lifestyle factor that limits their family's ability to live a healthy life, according to a new nationwide survey conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of Nemours Children's Health System. Eighty percent of parents believe that they have sufficient resources to raise healthy children, but a majority also cite serious obstacles to staying healthy.

Athens, Ga. - A team of researchers at the University of Georgia has found a way to identify gene regulatory elements that could help produce "designer" plants and lead to improvements in food crops at a critical time. They published their findings in two separate papers in Nature Plants.