Culture

Why is it that some chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's, affect both the small intestine and the colon, while others, like ulcerative colitis, are restricted to the colon? In order to solve clinical puzzles such as this one, among others, researchers from the University of Würzburg created miniature versions of the digestive tract in the lab. One of their discoveries: the digestive tract contains an inherent segmentation that could shed new light onto these common inflammatory conditions.

In higher organisms, cells and organelles are surrounded by a membrane, which plays a crucial role in not just creating a barrier from the external environment but also mediating exchange of fluids, electrolytes, proteins, and other useful material. Usually, these membranes are composed of water-repelling layers formed by lipid molecules, with various "transmembrane" proteins embedded in this double-layered sheet. These proteins are assembled in a way such that they create unique "gates" or "channels" that open and close in response to selective molecules or ions under specific conditions.

Citizen science could help track progress towards all 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). An IIASA-led study, for the first time, comprehensively analyzed the current and potential contribution of citizen science data to monitor the SDGs at the indicator level.

The human brain has evolved over eons of time to develop the most complex and unique network to support the strong brain functions. So far, it is well known that the brain network has characteristic features such as small world, scale-free, community, and rich-club etc. However, we know little about how these features ensure strong brain functions or what are the mechanisms of brain functions. Recently, a team from East China Normal University and Hong Kong Baptist University (S. Huo, C. Tian, M. Zheng, S. Guan, C.S. Zhou, and Z.

Some of the most fundamental questions in evolution remain unanswered, such as when and how extremely diverse groups of animals - for example reptiles - first evolved. For seventy-five years, adaptive radiations - the relatively fast evolution of many species from a single common ancestor - have been considered as the major cause of biological diversity, including the origins of major body plans (structural and developmental characteristics that identify a group of animals) and new lineages.

Even today, nobody can reliably predict when and where an earthquake will occur. However, eyewitnesses have repeatedly reported that animals behave unusually before an earthquake. In an international cooperation project, researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior in Konstanz/Radolfzell and the Cluster of Excellence Centre for the Advanced Study of Collective Behaviour at the University of Konstanz, have investigated whether cows, sheep, and dogs can actually detect early signs of earthquakes.

An international team led by physicists from the Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet (LMU) in Munich realized a novel genuine time-dependent topological system with ultracold atoms in periodically-driven optical honeycomb lattices.

Topological phases of matter have attracted a lot of interest due to their unique electronic properties that often result in exotic surface or boundary modes, whose existence is rooted in the non-trivial topological properties of the underlying system. In particular, the robustness of these properties makes them interesting for applications.

A new study by the University of Leeds and University of California at San Diego reveals that changes in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field may take place 10 times faster than previously thought.

Their study gives new insight into the swirling flow of iron 2800 kilometres below the planet's surface and how it has influenced the movement of the magnetic field during the past hundred thousand years.

Sweden's controversial decision not to lock down during COVID-19 produced more deaths and greater healthcare demand than seen in countries with earlier, more stringent interventions, a new analysis finds. But Sweden fared better than would be expected from its public-health mandates alone, roughly similar to France, Italy and Spain - countries that had more stringent measures but adopted them after the pandemic took hold there.

The New Siberian Islands were the birthplace of the MOSAiC floe: the sea ice in which the research vessel Polarstern is now drifting through the Arctic was formed off the coast of the archipelago, which separates the East Siberian Sea and the Laptev Sea to the north of Siberia, in December 2018. Sediments, and even small pebbles and bivalves, were incorporated into the ice during the freezing process, which the on-going melting process has brought to light on the surface of the MOSAiC floe.

New research found that the likelihood of being diagnosed with advanced cancer decreased among individuals with low income after expansion of Medicaid coverage. The findings are published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society (ACS).

In a paper that made the cover of the journal Applied Physics Letters, an international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers. This approach, based on the compression of light pulses, would make it possible to reach a threshold intensity for a new type of physics that has never been explored before: quantum electrodynamics phenomena.

 

In the US, dying from rabies is virtually unheard of. But around the world, rabies kills 59,000 people every year. Ninety-nine percent of those deaths are caused by dog bites; half of the people killed are children. There's a relatively simple way of preventing these deaths--vaccinating dogs against the disease--but systemic challenges make that easier said than done.

Lugano, Switzerland, 2 July 2020 - Artificial intelligence (AI) holds promise for enabling earlier detection of pancreatic cancer, which is crucial to saving lives. The potential of AI is showcased in a study to be presented at the ESMO World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, 1-4 July 2020. (1, 2)

For people infected by HIV in the subset of cases involving several variants of the virus, and for which disease progression is usually faster, a new modeling study suggests the number of infection-initiating viral variants is primarily determined by how long the source partner has been infected. According to the results of this work, which uniquely accounts for the sexual partner from whom the infection was acquired, the risk for multiple-founder variant transfer during sexual HIV exposure is nearly doubled during the first three months of the source partner's infection.