Culture

Mitochondria in neurons are the powerhouses that generate energy to execute cellular functions and regulate neuronal survival under conditions of stress. Collaborative research by Prof. Vidita Vaidya and Prof. Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam groups at TIFR, along with Dr. Ashok Vaidya, at Medical Research Centre, Kasturba Health Society, has demonstrated an unusual function for the neurotransmitter serotonin, in the generation of new mitochondria--a process called mitochondrial biogenesis--in neurons, accompanied by increase in cellular respiration and ATP, the energy currency of the cell.

Elite athletes are less likely to take banned substances if they consider the morality of what they are doing, and not just the health consequences of doping, according to a new study led by the University of Birmingham and funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

In the study, conducted in UK, Denmark, and Greece, 1,500 athletes were asked to complete a questionnaire about two hypothetical doping situations. Participants were male and female elite football players, competing just below professional levels.

Chestnut Hill, MA (5/9/2019) - Opposites may attract and drive each other a little crazy, but, together, they can make satisfactory decisions despite their divergent attitudes, according to a Boston College researcher who led a study that explored how selfish and altruistic consumers join in decision making.

What is the genetic basis for eucalyptus trees to produce that fragrant oil many of us associate with trips to the spa? Carsten Külheim, associate professor in Michigan Technological University's School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, has spent the past 10 years of his career studying eucalyptus. They are diverse, fast-growing species that includes scrubby bushes and 300-foot-tall flowering trees -- mostly indigenous to Australia, but also New Guinea and Indonesia.

What really matters in caring for babies may be different than commonly thought, says Lehigh University researcher Susan S. Woodhouse, an expert on infant attachment. In new research, she finds that caregivers need only "get it right" 50 percent of the time when responding to babies' need for attachment to have a positive impact on a baby.

MADISON -- Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are among the most important tools in modern biomedical research, leading to new and promising possibilities in precision medicine. To create them requires transforming a cell of one type, such as skin, into something of a blank slate, so it has the potential to become virtually any other kind of cell in the body, useful for regenerative therapies for everything from heart disease to diabetes.

Globally, alcohol intake increased from 5.9 litres pure alcohol a year per adult in 1990, to 6.5 litres in 2017, and is predicted to increase further to 7.6 litres by 2030. This is likely to be caused by increased alcohol use in low- and middle-income countries as they become wealthier.

Between 2010-2017, the most notable increases in alcohol drinking occurred in India and Vietnam, compared with significant decreases in Azerbaijan, Russia, the UK, and Peru.

Better-qualified staff maintain the quality of state-funded preschools, making up for the larger number of children per staff member in comparison to private and voluntary settings, finds a new study by researchers at the University of Oxford. They also show that the quality of private early years settings can be predicted by staff qualifications, and for voluntary settings, an in-house training plan and a better staff to child ratio.

The price tag for cutting global emissions may seem expensive, until the human toll of deaths from air pollution and climate change are factored in, new research says.

The new study in Nature Communications reports that immediate, dramatic cuts in carbon emissions - aggressive enough to meet the Paris Climate Agreement - are economically sound if human health benefits are factored in.

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Researchers report that a protein known to be important to protein synthesis also influences muscle regeneration and regrowth in an unexpected manner. The discovery, reported in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, could one day lead to new methods for treating disorders that result in muscle weakness and loss of muscle mass, the researchers said.

Scientists have long studied leucine tRNA-synthetases, or LRS, for its role in protein synthesis, said University of Illinois cell and developmental biology professor Jie Chen, who led the research.

Leesburg, VA, May 5, 2019-- Zero TE (ZTE) skull magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) can be a possible option for clinical use in patients with skull lesions and may be helpful in managing radiosensitive trauma patients, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2019 Annual Meeting, set for May 5-10 in Honolulu, HI.

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical feasibility of ZTE skull MRI for evaluating skull lesions in patients with head trauma, assessing its diagnostic image quality and quantitative values in comparison with computerized tomography (CT).

In-store mobile phone use that is unrelated to shopping may be associated with an increase in unplanned purchases, according to a study published in the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.

New smartphone apps and greater use of social media could help reduce the exploitation of traditional weavers in poor rural regions of Malaysia, new research suggests.

MADISON, Wis. -- Developing renewable, plant-based alternatives for petroleum-derived chemicals is a major piece of the effort to transition away from a fossil-fuel based economy toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly bio-based economy. But integration of novel and unproven technology into existing industrial systems carries an element of risk that has made commercialization of such advances a significant challenge.

Interaction between universities and companies in Brazil has societal, economic and environmental impacts, as well as positive effects on academic productivity. Researchers and research groups who collaborate with business organizations are scientifically more productive. The intellectual and scientific impacts of the partnership are positive.