Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have revealed a new principle of organisation which explains how locomotion is coordinated in vertebrates akin to an engine with three gears. The results are published in the scientific journal Neuron.

EUGENE, Ore. - Jan. 22, 2020 - Espresso delivers a desired jolt of caffeine but getting a consistent good-taste is difficult. New research is offering a roadmap to reproducibility and a potential savings of $3.1 million a day for coffee shops across the United States.

In a new study, now online ahead of print in the journal Matter, a 10-member international team of researchers performed mathematical modeling and brewed hundreds of espresso shots to discover the key variables required to make consistently tasty coffee.

CHAPEL HILL, NC - January 22, 2020 - Approximately 38 million people are infected with HIV worldwide, about 1.1 million people in the United States. Currently, people with HIV take antiretroviral therapy (ART), which can suppress HIV to undetectable levels in blood, but the virus persists throughout the body in latently infected resting CD4+ T cells. The immune system cannot recognize these cells and no current therapies can eliminate them. When ART is stopped, viral loads spike in blood.

Everyone hates road construction, even the soils and bodies of water around the roads. Paved roads can't absorb water, so that responsibility falls to the soil next to the road. Unfortunately, those soils are often damaged during construction.

Water that runs off roads can contain harmful contaminants. If that water doesn't infiltrate into nearby soil, those contaminants can make their way into bodies of water and be harmful. Rich McLaughlin and his research team at North Carolina State University have been working on how to help soil be healthy and happy after road construction.

New research from Cass Business School has found that business sustainability strategies can succeed alongside mainstream competitive strategies when managers believe in them.

The intestinal commensal microbial community (or microbiota) is composed of several microorganisms that, among other functions, are beneficial for the protection against infectious agents. When the microbiota is altered many bacteria are lost, compromising the protective ability and enabling the invasion by harmful bacteria. Antibiotics, despite being the best way to treat infections, can lead to changes in the microbiota and to the loss of some of these protective bacteria.

Harnessing bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) allows for low-loss light guidance and routing with a low-refractive-index waveguide on a high-refractive-index substrate. PICs operating under the BIC principle do not require patterning micro- or nanostructures in the functional photonic material. Without the stringent requirement of high-quality etching, many single-crystal materials that exhibit excellent optical functionalities in bulk form can now be introduced to the integrated photonic platform.

Many companies work hard to present an environmentally responsible public image. But how well do these claims stack up? In a new study led by the University of Göttingen, researchers investigated the claims regarding sustainability, including conservation and fair-pay, as presented by the French Michelin Group. The researchers then compared these claims with the effects described by local people in the village of Muara Sekalo in Indonesia.

Did the chicks of dinosaurs from the group oviraptorid hatch from their eggs at the same time? This question can be answered by the length and arrangement of the embryo's bones, which provide information about the stage of development. But how do you look inside fossilized dinosaur eggs? Paleontologists from the University of Bonn used the neutron source of the Technical University of Munich at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) in Garching. This showed that oviraptorids developed at different speeds in their eggs and that they resemble modern birds in this respect.

With 48 drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2019 was another highly productive year for the pharmaceutical industry. The new medicines include treatments for various cancers, sickle cell disease, migraines and postpartum depression. However, the steady flow of drugs could be masking troubling signs about the health of the industry, according to Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society. 

It is estimated that around 114,000 people disappeared throughout Spain during the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship. Unfortunately, eight decades on, only a small percentage of these people have been found or identified, with around 9,000 victims from 700 mass graves (of which it is thought there are approximately 2,000) being recovered in the last fifteen years. As time goes by and the samples themselves continue to deteriorate, conventional methods are no longer precise enough to identify the remains of all these unknown people.

The 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence, which startled nearby California residents over the 4 July holiday with magnitude 6.4 and magnitude 7.1 earthquakes, included 34,091 earthquakes overall, detailed in a high-resolution catalog created for the sequence.

The catalog, developed by David Shelly at the U.S. Geological Survey in Golden, Colorado, was published in the Data Mine column in Seismological Research Letters. The paper is part of a larger Data Mine series aimed at rapidly sharing data from the Ridgecrest sequence among researchers.

According to ancient lore, Genghis Khan instructed his horsemen to wear silk vests underneath their armor to better protect themselves against an onslaught of arrows during battle. Since the time of Khan, body armor has significantly evolved -- silk has given way to ultra-hard materials that act like impenetrable walls against most ammunition. However, even this armor can fail, particularly if it is hit by high-speed ammunition or other fast-moving objects.

It has been 30 years since the end of the Cold War, yet, on average, Americans still perceive that the odds of a nuclear weapon detonating on U.S. soil is as likely as a coin toss, according to new research from Stevens Institute of Technology.

"That's exceptionally high," said Kristyn Karl, a political scientist at Stevens who co-led the work with psychologist Ashley Lytle. "People don't generally believe that highly rare events are slightly less likely than a 50/50 tossup."

A University of Liverpool research paper, published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, provides details of the approaches needed to help build rapport with victims of crime during interviews.

Interviewing victims is one of the most challenging aspects of sexual offence investigations. Victims can be unwilling to reveal information, specifically within a formal interviewing setting and it is crucial to obtain information since they are often the only source of information.