Culture

PITTSBURGH, Feb. 20, 2020 - Researchers at UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh surveyed patients in a local clinic providing gender-affirming care to transgender youth and found that a surprisingly high number of them intentionally avoided disclosing their gender identity to doctors outside the clinic.

The paper was published today in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

A real-world study of over 600,000 adult participants without a history of depression has found that the stop-smoking medication varenicline (marketed as Chantix in the US and Champix elsewhere in the world) does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular or neuropsychiatric hospitalization compared with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These findings, published in the scientific journal Addiction, confirm those of earlier clinical trials, providing further evidence of the safety of varenicline as an aid to stop smoking.

In the recent decade, various schemes of field recovery with direct detection have been investigated in short-reach optical communications. Since direct detection generally provides only intensity information, until now, signals have been mainly restricted to the single sideband (SSB) modulation format in various proposed intensity-only detection schemes. For such detection schemes, signal-signal beating interference (SSBI) is the dominant limitation.

Cells are small factories that constantly produce protein and RNA molecules by decoding the genetic information stored in the DNA of their chromosomes. The first phase of this decoding, the transcription process, "transcribes" the DNA code into RNA molecules. In humans, and most other organisms, all cells of the body carry the full genetic information of the entire organism, with each individual cell requiring only a small subset of its DNA decoded. Even so, the first decoding phase (transcription) is pervasive and produces a large amount of surplus RNAs.

Historical wood panel paintings with developed craquelure patterns - networks of fine cracks in the paint- are significantly less vulnerable to environmental variations than previously assumed, according to a study in the open access journal Heritage Science. The findings offer a potential explanation as to why heavily cracked historical paintings remain stable in environments far from 'ideal' museum conditions.

Researchers at Uppsala University and the University of Leeds presents a new mathematical model of patterns of diversity in the fossil record, which offers a solution to Darwin's "abominable mystery" and strengthens our understanding of how modern groups originate. The research is published in the journal Science Advances.

New research has identified a clear accountability gap in the current Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation when it comes to outsourced public services.

The research, which focused on outsourcing through Private Finance Initiative (PFI), found high levels of non-disclosure due either to refusal/partial refusal or non-response to FOIs.

NEW YORK, NY (February 19, 2020) - A global community of over 150 scientists studying the primate brain has released a blueprint for developing more complete "wiring diagrams" of how the brain works that may ultimately improve understanding of many brain disorders.

People living in Balkan farming villages along the Danube River have long suffered from a unique type of kidney disease known as Balkan endemic nephropathy. Recently, scientists linked the disorder to compounds from a local weed that could be taken up into food crops from the soil. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology have discovered that contaminated groundwater could be another important source of human exposure.

Current tests for male fertility include measuring the concentration and motility of spermatozoa. However, other characteristics of sperm, such as their ability to follow a chemical trail to the egg, can influence the likelihood of fertilization. Now, researchers reporting in Analytical Chemistry have devised a quick and convenient microfluidic chip to assess this chemotactic response of spermatozoa, which could help provide a more complete picture of a man's fertility.

Leesburg, VA, February 19, 2020--Two MRI findings--joint capsule edema and thickness at the axillary recess, specifically--proved useful in predicting stiff shoulder in patients with rotator cuff tears, according to an ahead-of-print article in the May issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR).

Studying 106 patients with small to large (

ALBANY, CALIFORNIA, February 19, 2020--A simple, portable test that can detect the deadliest of the mushroom poisons in minutes has been developed by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and their colleagues.

Eating toxic mushrooms causes more than 100 deaths a year, globally, and leaves thousands of people in need of urgent medical assistance. Amanitin is the class of mushroom toxins that cause the most serious issues.

Risky drinking is a significant problem for youth and young adults, and mass media messages--such as TV commercials--are frequently used in campaigns aimed at warning them about alcohol use. But how these videos effectively increase awareness of risky drinking, or if they reduce alcohol use in an audience, is not always clear. A new study published in NeuroImage has applied the science of brain synchronisation to assessing the success of alcohol risk campaigns.

LA JOLLA--(February 18, 2020) People with bipolar disorder experience dramatic shifts in mood, oscillating between often debilitating periods of mania and depression. While a third of people with bipolar disorder can be successfully treated with the drug lithium, the majority of patients struggle to find treatment options that work.

As social beliefs and values change over time, scientists have struggled with effectively communicating the facts of their research with the public. Now, a team of researchers from the University of Missouri and the University of Colorado believe scientists can gain trust with their audience by showing their human side. The researchers say it can be as simple as using "I" and first-person narratives to help establish a personal connection with the audience.