Culture

Researchers at CRANN and the School of Physics at Trinity College Dublin have created an innovative new device that will emit single particles of light, or photons, from quantum dots that are the key to practical quantum computers, quantum communications, and other quantum devices.

The team has made a significant improvement on previous designs in photonic systems via their device, which allows for controllable, directional emission of single photons and which produces entangled states of pairs of quantum dots.

Qubits and the promise of quantum computing

Philadelphia, July 7, 2020 - Researchers have previously identified brain structural signatures associated with individual neurological diseases using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In a new study, a team of scientists based in Germany has compared data from multiple studies to find brain structural abnormalities shared between four different neuropsychiatric conditions. The researchers also found brain signatures that were unique to individual conditions.

BINGHAMTON, NY -- Students tend to be more engaged in activism if the school that they attend emphasizes social and political issues, according to new research featuring faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.

A research team including Binghamton University Assistant Professor of Student Affairs Administration John Zilvinskis examined survey responses to an experimental itemset of the National Survey of Student Engagement measuring behaviors related to student activism. The sample included 3,257 seniors from 22 four-year institutions.

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Charitable giving is a nearly half-trillion-dollar sector of the U.S. economy, but what accounts for why some individuals, foundations and corporations give locally while others give to charities on the other side of the globe? According to a new paper co-written by a University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign expert in consumer behavior and global marketing, the dynamic interplay between the accessibility of local impact versus more global goals can influence charitable behaviors between donors and recipients.

Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells. An international team led by Stefan Weber from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of these electron highways could make perovskite solar cells even more powerful.

New Rochelle, NY, July 7, 2020--Fathers' prepartum social media posts can predict their risk of postpartum depression. A predictive model based on machine learning is described in the peer-reviewed journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. Click here to read the article now.

Fathers' social media posts were evaluated for changes in behavior (engagement with the platform), emotions, linguistic style, and discussion topics following the birth of their child.

The outermost reaches of our solar system are a strange place--filled with dark and icy bodies with nicknames like Sedna, Biden and The Goblin, each of which span several hundred miles across.

Two new studies by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder may help to solve one of the biggest mysteries about these far away worlds: why so many of them don't circle the sun the way they should.

The orbits of these planetary oddities, which scientists call "detached objects," tilt and buckle out of the plane of the solar system, among other unusual behaviors.

Researchers at McMaster University who study how the brain processes sound have discovered the common practice of using artificial tones in perception experiments could mean scientists are overlooking important and interesting discoveries in the field of brain research.

The research, published recently in the journal Scientific Reports, is the culmination of a decade of rigorous analysis, in which the team reviewed one thousand auditory experiments published in several leading journals.

ST. LOUIS, MO, July 7, 2020 - Growth and development of all organisms depends on coordinated regulation of gene expression in time and space, and this is largely controlled by non-coding sequences in the genome. A major challenge in genomics-enabled crop improvement is functional annotation of cis-regulatory elements in crop genomes and the ability to harness these sequences, either through breeding or biotechnology, to fine-tune target pathways with minimal disruption to the complex networks in which they reside.

Astrophysicists of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) with colleagues from Russia and oversea have revealed that large and dense particles with irregular shapes possess a 10-μm silicate feature introduced in lots of comets and protoplanetary discs. The outcome based on 15 examples of olivine silicate studied doesn't meet Mie theory provisions applied for comet particles modelling and capable of helping to reconsider the results of data. A related article appears in Icarus.

In a new study published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Candice Alfano, University of Houston professor of psychology and director of the Sleep and Anxiety Center of Houston, reports the results from an innovative, experimental study showing inadequate nighttime sleep alters several aspects of children's emotional health.

In a new study published in Cell, "RNA sensing by gut Piezo1 is essential for systemic serotonin synthesis", a research team led by Kenta Maruyama M.D., Ph.D. from National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS) explored the role of Piezo1, a mechano-sensing receptor, in the sensing of bacterial RNA. They found that gut Piezo1 stimulated by bacterial RNA was pivotal for the production of serotonin, an important hormone that regulates gut and bone homeostasis.

Astronomers can go their whole career without finding a new object in the sky. But for Lina Necib, a postdoctoral scholar in theoretical physics at Caltech, the discovery of a cluster of stars in the Milky Way, but not born of the Milky Way, came early - with a little help from supercomputers, the Gaia space observatory, and new deep learning methods.

Flavonoids from a specific line of corn act as anti-inflammatory agents in the guts of mice with an inflammatory-bowel-disease-like condition, according to a team of researchers who said flavonoid-rich corn should be studied to determine its potential to provide a protective effect on human health.

WACO, Texas (July 7, 2020) - Perceived pregnancy discrimination indirectly relates to increased levels of postpartum depressive symptoms for mothers and lower birth weights, lower gestational ages and increased numbers of doctor visits for babies, according to a management study led by Baylor University.

The study - "Examining the Effects of Perceived Pregnancy Discrimination on Mother and Baby Health" - is published in the Journal of Applied Psychology.