Body

Since humans diverged from a common ancestor shared with chimpanzees and the other great apes, the human brain has changed dramatically. However, the genetic and developmental processes responsible for this divergence are not understood. Cerebral organoids (brain-like tissues), grown from stem cells in a dish, offer the possibility to study the evolution of early brain development in the laboratory.

Insulin, a hormone essential for regulating blood sugar and lipids, is normally produced by pancreatic β cells. In many people with diabetes, however, pancreatic cells are not (or no longer) functional, causing a chronic and potentially fatal insulin deficiency that can only be controlled through daily insulin injections. However, this approach has serious adverse effects, including an increased risk of life-threatening hypoglycaemia, and it does not restore metabolic balance.

The cover for issue 57 of Oncotarget features Figure 2, "Overall survival analysis of GLUT1, PD-L1, and histologic architecture," by Chamseddin, et al.

High levels of circ E7 by quantitative RT-PCR predicted improved overall survival in ASCC and analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas sequencing from HPV-positive head and neck cancer and cervical cancer suggested high circ E7 marked improved survival in 875 subjects.

BOSTON - Most cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), a type of soft-tissue cancer (sarcoma), are caused by mutations in genes that can be effectively targeted with drugs that inhibit the activity of rogue cancer-promoting enzymes.

But an estimated 10% to 20% of GISTs have no identifiable or targetable mutations. Now, investigators in a Boston-area cancer research collaboration have clarified mechanisms that allow these hard-to-treat cancers to develop, and in lab experiments have identified strategies that could lead to effective new therapies.

WHAT:

National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have developed an ultrasensitive new test to detect abnormal forms of the protein tau associated with uncommon types of neurodegenerative diseases called tauopathies. As they describe in Acta Neuropathologica, this advance gives them hope of using cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF--an accessible patient sample--to diagnose these and perhaps other, more common neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center report that their study of tumor samples from people with the rare genetic syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has uncovered novel molecular clues about which tumors are most likely to be aggressive in those with NF1. According to the researchers, the clues could advance the search for more customized and relevant treatments that spare patients exposure to treatments unlikely to work.

WHAT:

A study published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology describes a new rapid assay for Lyme disease that could lead to a practical test for use by healthcare providers. The researchers found the assay, which uses several biomarkers to detect Lyme disease infection, was more sensitive than current laboratory-based tests when diagnosing Lyme disease early after suspected infection. The research was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

Research led by VHIO's Alena Gros signposts a new, less invasive approach to identify killer T lymphocytes in patients with gastrointestinal tumors with low mutational burden who are refractory to approved immune-based treatments.

Killer T cells identified in blood that can hone in on mutations uniquely expressed in cancer cells pave the way for an alternative and personalized therapeutic avenue.

WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. - Oct. 16, 2019 - A discovery made several years ago in a lab researching asthma at Wake Forest School of Medicine may now have implications for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease with no known cure and only two FDA-approved drugs to treat its progression and severity.

The scientist discusses several reasons, including fear of the actual and fictional side effects of rapamycin, everolimus and other clinically-approved drugs, arguing that no real side effects preclude their use as anti-aging drugs today.

They go on to discuss why it is more dangerous not to use anti-aging drugs than to use them and how rapamycin-based drug combinations have already been implemented for potential life extension in humans.

Deaf infants who have been exposed to American Sign Language are better at following an adult's gaze than their hearing peers, supporting the idea that social-cognitive development is sensitive to different kinds of life experiences.

Leesburg, VA, October 16, 2019--An ahead-of-print article forthcoming in the March 2020 issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) comparing cancer detection rates (CDR) for screening digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) versus full-field digital mammography (FFDM) found that DBT results in "significantly increased CDR"--irrespective of tumor type, size, or grade of cancer.

Three simple factors that predict whether a healthy weight child will be overweight or obese by adolescence have been revealed in a new study led by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI).

The research shows three factors - a child's and mother's Body Mass Index (BMI) and the mother's education level - predict the onset or resolution of weight problems by adolescence, especially from age 6-7 years onwards.

Hartford, Conn. -- Fruit drinks and flavored waters that contain added sugars and/or low-calorie (diet) sweeteners dominated sales of drinks intended for children in 2018, making up 62 percent of the $2.2 billion in total children's drink sales, according to Children's Drink FACTS 2019, a new report from the Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity at the University of Connecticut.

DALLAS, Oct. 16, 2019 -- Five to six year old children had higher systolic blood pressure if their mothers used snus, a moist, powdered smokeless tobacco that contains nicotine, while pregnant compared to children of mothers who did not use snus, according to new research published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, the open access journal of the American Heart Association.