Body

AUGUSTA, Ga. (Feb. 11, 2019) - When a car crash or explosion results in an optic nerve injury, eliminating an enzyme known to promote inflammation appears to aid recovery, scientists report.

They have shown for the first time in a mouse model of tough-to-treat optic nerve trauma, that removing the enzyme arginase 2, which increases with injury, decreases neuron death in the retina as well as the degeneration of nerve fibers that connect neurons to each other and ultimately the brain, they report in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience.

Southern courts favor physicians in malpractice lawsuits over facial trauma treatment, while courts in the Midwest favor patients, according to a Rutgers study.

The study, which was published in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, is the first to explore facial trauma litigation. It also found that outcomes in facial trauma lawsuits generally favor physicians, with nearly three-fourths of cases being dismissed before trial.

New research conducted at OHSU in Portland, Oregon, identifies a gene that could provide a new target for developing medication to prevent and treat alcoholism.

Scientists at the Oregon National Primate Research Center at OHSU discovered a gene that had lower expression in the brains of nonhuman primates that voluntarily consumed heavy amounts of alcohol compared with those that drank less.

The pipeline of research supporting care as we age is about to look a bit more like the country it serves--and for good reason. Beginning this year, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), America's premier institution for medical research, will for the first time in its history require NIH-funded scholars to eliminate arbitrary age limits in their work, age limits that previously allowed for excluding groups like older people without just cause.

NEW YORK, NY (Feb. 8, 2019)--Athletes know a vigorous workout can release a flood of endorphins: "feel-good" hormones that boost mood. Now there's evidence that exercise produces another hormone that may improve memory and protect against Alzheimer's disease, according to a study co-led by Ottavio Arancio, MD, PhD, a researcher at Columbia University's Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain.

The study was published in Nature Medicine.

Feb. 8, 2019-- Compared to Mexican American children, Puerto Rican children were more likely to have poor or decreasing use of inhaled medication needed to control their asthma, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

The study also found that girls of both ethnic groups were more likely than boys to have poor or decreasing use of the asthma control medications.

An unexpected finding in pre-clinical platelet studies by Baker Institute researchers could provide a novel approach to targeting and destroying difficult-to-treat cancer cells, providing new therapeutic options for a range of cancers.

This latest finding, published in the journal Theranostics, was discovered while studying activated platelets in the setting of heart disease and may now prove useful for delivering targeted treatment to cancer cells without major side effects.

A Rutgers-led team has discovered two genes that make some strains of harmful Staphyloccocus bacteria resistant to treatment by copper, a potent and frequently used antibacterial agent.

The discovery shows that Staphyloccocus aureus can acquire additional genes that promote infections and antibacterial resistance and may open new paths for the development of antibacterial drugs, according to a study in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- A phthalate found in many plastic and personal care products may decrease fertility in female mice, a new study found.

Researchers at the University of Illinois found that giving female mice oral doses of the phthalate DiNP for 10 days disrupted their reproductive cycles, decreasing their ability to become pregnant for up to nine months afterward.