Body

Parkinson's disease can begin in the gut and spread to the brain via the vagus nerve, researchers report June 26th in the journal Neuron. This pathway was observed in a new mouse model, which recapitulates both motor and non-motor deficits as well as early-stage and late-stage features associated with Parkinson's disease.

Many psychiatric drugs act on the receptors or transporters of certain neurotransmitters in the brain. However, there is a great need for alternatives, and research is looking at other targets along the brain's metabolic pathways. Lack of glycine betaine contributes to brain pathology in schizophrenia, and new research from the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) shows that betaine supplementation can counteract psychiatric symptoms in mice.

(Philadelphia, PA) - Inguinal hernia is one of the most common general surgical conditions in the world, with an estimated 220 million cases and 20 million surgeries performed annually. Inguinal hernia occurs when tissue, like part of the intestine, pushes through a weak spot in the abdominal wall and into the groin area. Hernias can be congenital or emerge over time. The condition is eight to 10 times more common in men, who have a 27 percent lifetime chance of developing one. Other risk factors include older age, a family history, and a previous hernia.

Bottom Line: Patients with multiple primary melanomas had a higher likelihood of dying than those with a single primary melanoma in a study that used data from registries in the Netherlands. This observational study included nearly 57,000 patients (54,645 with a single primary melanoma and 2,284 with multiple primary melanomas).

Orthopaedic surgeons are the third-highest physician prescribers of opioids, writing more than 6 million prescriptions a year. Because over-dispensing of opioids is a factor contributing to the ongoing opioid epidemic, researchers at Johns Hopkins surveyed orthopaedic providers to better understand what drives their prescribing practices and to identify gaps in knowledge and potentially worrisome trends.

Many of the immune defence reactions are launched in the lymph nodes. For instance, small, foreign molecules that pass through the skin are directed through lymphatic vessels to the draining lymph node where they are presented to white blood cells. However, the reticular conduits inside the lymph node are so small that large molecules cannot be transported through the system. Therefore, it has been thought that subcutaneously administered antibodies pass through the lymphatic vessels straight into the blood circulation bypassing the lymph nodes entirely.

Russian scientists found that nanocrystal tungsten trioxide can be used instead of barium for X-ray examinations and also in cancer treatment. The results of the study are published in &laquoJournal of Nanomaterials».

Despite the fact that many women who suffer migraines find that the number and severity of these severe headaches decrease during pregnancy, migraines are now being linked to elevated blood pressure, abortions, caesareans, preterm births and babies with low birth weight.

This is documented by an extensive register-based study recently published in the scientific journal Headache and carried out at the Department of Clinical Epidemiology at Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.

A collaborative study by a team of Connecticut researchers shows there is a strong connection between food insecurity and insulin resistance, the underlying problem in type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance occurs when cells are not able to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

The research by UConn School of Medicine, UConn School of Dental Medicine, Yale School of Public Health, Quinnipiac University, Hartford Hospital, and the Hispanic Health Council, suggests that for Latinos with type 2 diabetes food insecurity is linked to the disease's development and progression.

A new study brings the connection between statin use and risk of glaucoma into sharper focus. Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have found that using statins for five or more years is associated with lower risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. Results of the study were published recently in JAMA Ophthalmology.

DALLAS, June 26, 2019 -- Binge watching TV may be a greater risk factor for heart disease and premature death among African Americans than sitting at a desk job, according to new research in Journal of the American Heart Association, the Open Access Journal of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

Vienna, 26 June 2019: While female fertility comes to an irrevocable end with the menopause (at a consistently average age of 51 years), men are not constrained by similar biological senescence. Studies have shown that sperm counts may decline and DNA damage in sperm cells may increase over time, but the celebrity fatherhood of ageing actors and rock stars perpetuates the myth that male fertility might last forever.

Over 1,700 children die from child abuse each year in the U.S., and far more sustain injuries that result in hospitalization. These deaths and severe injuries are preventable, but effective strategies require a deeper understanding of the caregivers causing the harm and the circumstances surrounding the child's injuries.

NEW YORK, NY (June 26, 2019)--Sitting for long periods of time has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and early death, but a new study suggests that not all types of sitting are equally unhealthy.

Vienna, 26 June 2019: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the world's favoured means of fertilisation in assisted reproduction, offers no benefit over conventional in vitro fertilisation in fertility treatments without a male factor indication, according to results of a large multicentre study.