Body

DALLAS - May 10, 2019 - A UT Southwestern study suggests why urinary tract infections (UTIs) have such a high recurrence rate in postmenopausal women - several species of bacteria can invade the bladder walls.

UTI treatment is the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions in older adults. Because of the prevalence of UTIs, the societal impact is high and treatment costs billions of dollars annually.

Compared to patients who see their primary care doctor earlier in the day, cancer screening rates decline significantly as the day goes on, according to a new study from researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine and the Wharton School both of the University of Pennsylvania. The researchers, whose findings were published today in JAMA Network Open, believe these rates of decline may be in part due to "decision fatigue" -- which results from the cumulative burden of screening discussions earlier in the day -- and doctors falling behind in their busy schedules.

Bottom Line: The time of day of a primary care appointment was associated with the likelihood of a physician ordering cancer screenings and of patients completing those screenings in this study of 33 practices with patients eligible for breast or colorectal cancer screening. The likelihood of physicians ordering cancer screenings decreased as the clinic day progressed and so did the likelihood of patients completing those screenings within one year of the office visit.

Bottom Line: This study of nearly 134,000 patients admitted to intensive care units in France examined the association of age with risk of death in the hospital and then three months and three years after discharge.

Authors: Matthieu Legrand, M.D., Ph.D., L'Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, France, and coauthors

(doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3215)

WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. - May 10, 2019 - A diet proven to have beneficial effects on high blood pressure also may reduce the risk of heart failure in people under age 75, according to a study led by researchers at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health.

The observational study of more than 4,500 people showed that those individuals under 75 who most closely adhered to the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet had a significantly lower risk of developing heart failure than those whose eating habits were least in keeping with the diet.

Newly identified subsets of cell types present in joint tissue in people with rheumatoid arthritis and how they interact may explain why only some people respond to existing medications, according to two studies by co-senior author Laura Donlin, PhD, Co-Director of the Derfner Foundation Precision Medicine Laboratory at Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) and collaborating colleagues.

A new analysis co-led by The Johns Hopkins University identified 25 United States counties that are most likely to experience measles outbreaks in 2019. The analysis combined international air travel volume, non-medical exemptions from childhood vaccinations, population data and reported measles outbreak information.

The analysis will be published on May 9 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Trials with people with newly-diagnosed colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer suggest that whole body MRI could reduce the time it takes to diagnose the stage of cancers. The results are from two prospective trials with nearly 500 patients across 16 UK hospitals, published in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology and The Lancet Respiratory Medicine journals.

In a prospective study of 18,481 pregnant women in China who had never given birth before, obesity in early pregnancy was linked to higher risks of spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and large birth weight in newborns.

In the Obesity study, being underweight during pregnancy was linked to higher risks for early neonatal deaths, as well as low birth weight.

The findings point to the importance of an appropriate weight before and during pregnancy.

Young adults who experienced maltreatment during childhood are more prone to use e-cigarettes, according to a study published in The American Journal on Addictions.

The FRAX® tool takes into account certain factors to determine the risk of bone fracture in the general population. In a Journal of Bone and Mineral Research study, the tool was effective at determining fracture risk for women with breast cancer who were treated with aromatase inhibitors, which cause accelerated bone loss, when combined with bone mineral density measurements.

A new study revealed an increased risk of cancer and early death in individuals who developed inflammatory bowel disease-including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)--during childhood.

Chicago-May 7, 2019 - A new study released by the Center for Nutrition Research at Illinois Institute of Technology suggests that meals that include fresh avocado as a substitute for refined carbohydrates can significantly suppress hunger and increase meal satisfaction in overweight and obese adults.

As rates of obesity in the United States continue to rise, the findings from Illinois Tech suggest that simple dietary changes can have an important impact on managing hunger and aiding metabolic control.

Oncologists may soon have an accurate and inexpensive way of differentiating between types of ovarian cancer that will improve how patients are treated, thanks to findings from a national research study co-led out of the University of Alberta.

"One of the issues with ovarian cancer is that we cannot fully decipher between subtypes," said Lynne Postovit, U of A oncology researcher and co-director of the Cancer Research Institute of Northern Alberta. "This is an important problem because the different subtypes should be treated differently."

Philadelphia, May 8, 2019 - Grapefruit juice is already listed as a substance to avoid when taking QT-prolonging medications because it increases the toxicity of many drugs. Investigators have now confirmed the QT-prolonging effects of grapefruit juice in a new study and call for a stronger warning to patients who are taking QT-prolonging drugs or who have long QT syndrome because of the potential risk.