Body

Children born to mothers who both drank and smoked beyond the first trimester of pregnancy have a 12-fold increased risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) compared to those unexposed or only exposed in the first trimester of pregnancy, according to a new study supported by the National Institutes of Health.

January 2020 is the third anniversary of the implementation of the new US regulations that require clinical trials to report results within one year of completion (Final Rule of the FDA Amendments Act)--but compliance remains poor, and is not improving, with US Government sponsored trials most likely to breach.

Less than half (41%) of clinical trial results are reported promptly onto the US trial registry, and 1 in 3 trials remain unreported, according to the first comprehensive study of compliance since new US regulations came into effect in January 2017.

Scientists at UCL have shown a blood test could predict the onset of tuberculosis three to six months before people become unwell, a finding which could help better target antibiotics and save countless lives.

In the study, published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, researchers sought to identify which, if any, gene expression signatures in blood could be used to predict the disease at a very early stage and before symptoms arise.

HAMILTON, ON (Jan. 17, 2019) - Scurvy, the debilitating condition remembered as a disease of pirates, is still found in Canada.

The disease, which is caused by a vitamin C deficiency, can result in bruising, weakness, anemia, gum disease, hemorrhage, tooth loss, and even death if undiagnosed and untreated.

CAMBRIDGE, MA -- A variety of medical devices can be inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to treat, diagnose, or monitor GI disorders. Many of these have to be removed by endoscopic surgery once their job is done. However, MIT engineers have now come up with a way to trigger such devices to break down inside the body when they are exposed to light from an ingestible LED.

Boston, Mass. - Racial disparities have previously been identified across a range of health care environments, sometimes extending into the highest levels of care. A new study led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) reveals that while critical care outcomes in intensive care units (ICUs) steadily improved over a decade at hospitals with few minority patients, ICUs with a more diverse patient population did not progress comparably.

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago report that in Illinois hospital visits associated with homelessness have tripled since 2011.

Their findings, which are published in the American Journal of Public Health, also show that beginning in 2016, annual conservative estimates of homelessness using hospital-based data have exceeded similar estimates from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, or HUD.

It is known that the tumour microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer. But could estrogen present in this microenvironment facilitate the growth of liver metastases in women affected by colon, pancreatic and lung cancers?

DALLAS - Jan. 16, 2020 - A UT Southwestern researcher led a team that identified a new vulnerability in kidney tumors, the 10th most common cause of cancer death in men and women.

In their investigation of the most common type of kidney cancer, called clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), Qing Zhang, Ph.D., and his colleagues identified a possible way to treat tumors while sparing nearby healthy tissue.

New Zealand media reports on chronic pain are focusing on treatments involving opioids and cannabis at the expense of best practice non-drug treatments, researchers have found.

Chronic pain, defined as persistent or recurring pain present for more than three months, is the leading cause of disability worldwide and affects one in five New Zealanders.

The researchers analysed 240 news articles on chronic pain published in the New Zealand news media between January 2015 and June 2019. Their report is published in the latest issue of the New Zealand Medical Journal.

Jan. 17, 2020--While deaths steadily declined over a decade in intensive care units at hospitals with few minority patients, in ICUs with large numbers of minority patients, there was less improvement, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
The disparity was most pronounced among critically ill African American patients.

A common and inexpensive drug may be used to counteract treatment resistance in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), one of the most common forms of blood cancer. This is the conclusion of a study in mice and human blood cells performed at Karolinska Institutet and SciLifeLab and published in the medical journal EMBO Molecular Medicine. The researchers will now launch a clinical study to test the new combination treatment in patients.

What The Study Did: In this randomized clinical trial of about 200 patients with septic shock, combination treatment with intravenous vitamin C, hydrocortisone and thiamine compared with intravenous hydrocortisone alone didn't significantly improve the amount of time patients were alive and free of medicines that raise blood pressure (vasopressors) over seven days. The study findings are being released to coincide with presentation at the Critical Care Reviews Meeting 2020 in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

What The Study Did: An observational study of nearly 1,700 young healthy Danish men looked at how fish oil supplements were associated with testicular function as measured by semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. Limitations of this study include a lack of information on the actual concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in the fish oil supplements self-reported by the men. Researchers suggest randomized clinical trials are needed.

University of Manchester scientists investigating a possible treatment for foetal growth restriction (FGR), a condition in which babies grow poorly in the womb, have urged further caution on the use of Viagra.

The drug, commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction, as it enhances blood flow - has been undergoing trials as a potential treatment for FGR. However, in a recent study in mice, Viagra showed no improvement in foetal growth but did result in high blood pressure in the pups as they reached maturity.