Earth

A team of researchers from Tohoku University, J-PARC, and Tokyo Institute of Technology conducted an in-depth study of magnetic quasiparticles called "triplons." The team conducted the study with a low-dimensional quantum magnet, Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2, using neutron inelastic scattering by AMATERAS at J-PARC. Their findings lead to the discovery of a new "topologically protected triplon edge state" in the aforementioned compound.

Researchers from the California Department of Fish and Wildlife's Wildlife Investigations Laboratory present their results from a toxicological investigation into a mortality event involving songbirds in a new publication in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.

The applications of CRISPR based genetic engineering tools range from changing colors in butterfly wings to developing gene therapies that might one day cure or prevent human diseases.

Some scientists are also setting their sights on new uses - saving endangered species and possibly eliminating invasive ones to manage wildlife populations for conservation.

However, a University of Central Florida researcher and her colleagues have found that people living in the U.S. are wary of using this technology to achieve wildlife conservation goals.

Declining biodiversity due to man-made habitat destruction and climate change means that information about plant diversity and its distribution across the planet is now crucial for biodiversity conservation. With the Global Inventory of Floras and Traits (GIFT), a team of researchers from the Department of Biodiversity, Macroecology and Biogeography at the University of Göttingen has taken an important step forward in documenting and understanding global plant diversity. The results appear in the Journal of Biogeography.

Philadelphia, June 26, 2019 - Overcrowding on the trails leading to the summit on Yosemite National Park's Half Dome is not the key factor influencing hiker safety, according to a new study in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, published by Elsevier.

Okazaki, Japan - Although the widespread environmental contaminant methylmercury is largely associated with neurotoxic effects, it is also associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Nishimura et al. found that mice exposed to a dose of methylmercury that was too low to cause neurotoxicity were more vulnerable to heart failure in response to pressure overload. Methylmercury removed a polysulfide group from Drp1, thereby removing an inhibitory brake on this protein, which resulted in increased Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission.

Africa is projected to be home to nearly 3 billion people by 2100, but rapid population growth will cause widespread environmental degradation unless effective family planning becomes widespread policy, according to new research that tracked increased population pressures on the continent's ecosystems.

Researchers from Flinders University and the University of Helsinki have examined the environmental impacts of population density, variation in the distribution of wealth among citizens, and a country's overall economic activity across the African continent.

Bees are valuable to humans not only because they produce honey, but also because they pollinate wildflowers and food crops. They exclusively eat nectar and pollen. So in areas where intensive agriculture is practised, they suffer from the thin supply of flowers in May and June, when cultivated oilseed rape (colza) and sunflower are not in bloom. During that period, pollen collection, honey production, and colony growth slow. An article published in the Journal of Applied Ecology shows that organic farming can limit this decline.

Researchers have discovered 56 previously uncharted subglacial lakes beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet bringing the total known number of lakes to 60.

Although these lakes are typically smaller than similar lakes in Antarctica, their discovery demonstrates that lakes beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet are much more common than previously thought.

The Greenland Ice Sheet covers an area approximately seven times the size of the UK, is in places more than three kilometres thick and currently plays an important role in rising global sea levels.

Enhancing cancer treatment is a "major priority" for the UK public, which also thinks that the NHS needs more resources to provide "excellent cancer care", finds a new national survey led by UCL.

The study, British Public Attitudes towards Cancer Research and Treatment in 2019, found that half (49%) the population believe cancer is the disease group for which they most want better treatments for themselves and their families. In addition, 59% believe that stopping the suffering caused by cancer is one of the most important things society could achieve by 2050.

Aiken, S.C. - Tadpoles can be used to measure the amount of radiocesium, a radioactive material, in aquatic environments, according to new research from University of Georgia scientists.

Whether from nuclear accidents, global fallout from weapons testing, or production of nuclear energy, tadpoles could be used to determine the extent and severity of radioactive contamination.

When you think of national parks, you might picture the vast plateaus of the Grand Canyon, the intricate wetlands of the Everglades, or the inspiring viewscapes of the Grand Tetons. You probably don't envision 100 million pounds of mashed water bottles, barbecue-smudged paper plates, and crumpled coffee cups - but that is the staggering quantity of garbage that is generated in our National Parks each year. And handling that amount of waste is becoming a huge problem.

By analyzing records in countries of the Amazon and Orinoco basins--which include Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador--a paper published today in Oryx--The International Journal of Conservation, categorized 85 past and present initiatives or projects that work to preserve the South American River Turtle, or charapa (Podocnemis expansa), a critically endangered species. These projects are protecting more than 147,000 female turtles across the basin, an unprecedented figure.

New York, NY--June 24, 2019--Researchers from Brown and Columbia Universities have demonstrated previously unknown states of matter that arise in double-layer stacks of graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial. These new states, known as the fractional quantum Hall effect, arise from the complex interactions of electrons both within and across graphene layers.

Memory impairment and mood changes are typically observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease but what disturbs these neuronal functions is unclear. Some researchers have proposed that alterations in the production of new neurons in the brain, or neurogenesis, may be involved; however, whether neurogenesis happens in humans, much less those with Alzheimer's disease, has been debated. A discovery published today in the journal Cell Reports provides a possible explanation for this debate and may shed light on what happens in Alzheimer's disease.