Earth

A scientific paper published in 1985 was the first to report a burgeoning hole in Earth's stratospheric ozone over Antarctica. Scientists determined the cause to be ozone-depleting substances - long-lived artificial halogen compounds. Although the ozone-destroying effects of these substances are now widely understood, there has been little research into their broader climate impacts.

What rules shaped humanity's original social networks? Researchers in Japan developed new mathematical models to understand what conditions produced traditional community structures and conventions around the world, including taboos about incest.

Killing and eating of potential competitors, also known as intraguild predation, is a rare event that occurs only in specific situations such as severe scarcity of food resources, resulting in the competition between predators.

Climate change is causing the subarctic tundra to warm twice as fast as the global average, and this warming is speeding up the activity of the plant life. Researchers from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the Helmholtz Zentrum München, Germany, have now elucidated how this warming affects the tundra ecosystem and the origin of an increased amount of volatile compounds released from the tundra.

The results are published in the renowned scientific journal Global Change Biology.

New research has found that environmental efforts aimed at eliminating deforestation from oil palm production have the potential to benefit vulnerable tropical mammals.

These findings, published by Conservation Letters, were drawn from an international collaboration led by Dr Nicolas Deere from the University of Kent's Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE), and including the University of Melbourne, University of York, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, and South East Asia Rainforest Research Partnership.

New study shows that peach-fronted conures have a surprisingly advanced talent for collaboration when it comes to finding food. This is important knowledge for biologists working with conservation of wild bird populations.

It is well known that certain mammals and birds live in groups and help each other find food, care for the young, hunt or keep watch.

A researcher from Baltic Federal University together with his colleagues developed a composite material that can change its temperature and parameters under the influence of magnetic and electrical fields. Smart materials are safe for human health, and with these properties can be used to manufacture implants (or surface coating for them) that would work as sensors. The article was published in the Scientific Reports journal.

Projected ocean warming and acidification not only impacts the behaviour of individual species but also the wider marine ecosystems which are influenced by them, a new study shows.

Research published in Nature Climate Change shows that in warmer seawater with lower pH, a common clam - the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana) - makes considerable changes to its feeding habits.

A first of its kind, global study on the impacts of human land-use on different groups of animals has found that predators, especially small invertebrates like spiders and ladybirds, are the most likely to be lost when natural habitats are converted to agricultural land or towns and cities. The findings are published in the British Ecological Society journal Functional Ecology.

Despite reports that global emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, , were almost eliminated in 2017, an international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has found atmospheric levels growing at record values.

Over the last two decades, scientists have been keeping a close eye on the atmospheric concentration of a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) gas, known as HFC-23.

New research has found preparing land for palm oil plantations and the growth of young plants causes significantly more damage to the environment, emitting double the amount of greenhouse gases than mature plantations.

Certain perovskite compounds are seen as a great hope for better and, above all, even cheaper solar cells. Their crystal lattice is formed by organic methylammonium cations (MA+) surrounded by heavy metal atoms (lead or tin) and atoms like iodine. The best perovskite solar cells today are realized with lead. In just ten years of research, the efficiency of these solar cells in the laboratory has been increased from 4 percent (2009) to over 25 percent (2019). However, lead is toxic and must not enter the food chain.

A new approach to reclaiming lands disturbed by surface mining is having the desired result of improving ecosystem diversity, including restoration of foundation species such as sagebrush, according to a study by University of Wyoming researchers.

In the warmer and brighter shallow waters of Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, the Hawaiian rice coral (Montipora capitata) hosts more heat-tolerant symbiotic microalgae in their tissues compared to corals in deeper waters. This pattern was demonstrated in a recent study by scientists at the University of Hawai'i (UH) at Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), and they suggest that while this can help corals weather a heat wave, it may have a price--lower nutrition when the heat wave has passed and seawater temperatures cool down.

SAN FRANCISCO (January 21, 2020)--From sea shores to salt flats, a high incidence of spiders spin a life in or around water. Researchers at the California Academy of Sciences and William Paterson University found that nearly one fifth of all spider families are associated with saltwater or freshwater aquatic habitats.