Earth

For viruses to multiply, they usually need the support of the cells they infect. In many cases, only in their host's nucleus can they find the machines, enzymes and building blocks with which they can multiply their genetic material before infecting other cells. But not all viruses find their way into the cell nucleus. Some remain in the cytoplasm and thus must be able to multiply their genetic material independently. To do so, they have to bring their own "machine park". An essential role in this process plays a special enzyme composed of various subunits: the RNA polymerase.

As sea levels rise and adverse weather events become more common, vulnerable coastal communities are at increasing risk of devastation from storm surges and tsunamis. The death toll from tsunamis, at 260,000 during the past century, was higher than that from any other natural hazard. An international research team led by the University of Göttingen has now compared the effects of man-made and ecosystem protection to propose a hybrid approach including mangroves and coral reefs in coastal protection plans for tropical biodiversity hotspots.

Professor José María Martín-Olalla, from the University of Seville, has published a new report where the impact of seasonal clock-changing in daily life is analyzed from time use surveys in United States, Spain, Italy, France and Great Britain. These countries have faced seasonal regulation of clocks for more than forty years. The results state that human cycles are not misaligned by Daylight Saving Time regulations.

A single drop of seawater can contain a wide representation of ocean microbes from around the world - revealing novel insights into the ecology, evolution and biotechnology potential of the global microbiome. A new publication in Cell reports a staggering degree of biological diversity that defies contemporary definitions of microbial species, illuminates reasons behind challenges in metagenomic studies, and may even further understanding of how marine microbes respond to climate change.

Caution is advised in interpreting the findings of the recent JAMA Internal Medicine publication1 on radioactive iodine treatment for hyperthyroid patients and cancer mortality. The paper's conclusion that "in RAI-treated patients with hyperthyroidism, greater organabsorbed doses appeared to be modestly positively associated with risk of death from solid cancer, including breast cancer", has raised concerns among patients and clinicians.

A team of researchers from the University of Georgia's Regenerative Bioscience Center has found that neural exosomes--"cargo" molecules within the nervous system that carry messages to the brain--can minimize or even avert progression of traumatic brain injury when used as part of a new cell-to-cell messaging technology.

The finding could result in the first delivery platform and regenerative treatment for TBI.

Caribou, the North American cousin of reindeer, migrate farther than any terrestrial animal. They can cover thousands of miles as they move between winter feeding grounds and summer calving grounds. But many caribou herds are in decline as the warming climate changes much of the landscape they depend on. Inedible shrubs are rapidly encroaching on the tundra, and more frequent forest fires and disease are destroying the trees that provide caribou with lichen for food.

SASKATOON--The heady aroma of magnolia blossoms and lotus flowers might have wafted to your nostrils if you had gone for a walk 56 million years ago in the lush green forest which covered Canada's northernmost islands.

Now covered in ice and snow, present-day Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg islands in Nunavut were once home to a vibrant, temperate forest, according to fossil research just published by University of Saskatchewan (USask) scientists.

The study simulated Chernobyl-levels of radiation exposure in a laboratory to investigate the impacts it may be having on insects inhabiting the exclusion zone. Although it has been previously found that bumblebees are sensitive to radiation, few studies have investigated the effects on their fitness. The dose rates of radiation in which negative effects occur are also uncertain.

New research from a cross-organisational consortium in the Amazon has found indigenous knowledge to be as accurate as scientific transect monitoring.

The research involved pooling resources between universities and NGO's, including British universities Oxford Brookes University, Manchester Metropolitan University and the University of Suffolk, to create a strong partnership of researchers from several institutions.

Philadelphia, December 12, 2019 - High blood pressure in the lungs, known as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a potentially fatal disease caused by obstruction of blood flow in the lungs.

Approximately 30 percent of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere by human activities, mainly the use of fossil fuels and deforestation, is taken up by terrestrial ecosystems such as forests and grasslands. The recent reports from the IPCC concluded that new land-use options to enhance this terrestrial carbon sink are needed to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate.

Following the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011, the Japanese authorities decided to carry out major decontamination works in the affected area, which covers more than 9,000 km2.

The Belgian coastal dunes, a protected habitat of high conservation value, are getting severely impacted by one of its worst enemies amongst invasive species: the Oregon grape. To help mitigate the detrimental effect of this North American shrub invader, Belgian scientists carried out an experiment to assess the effectiveness of different management methods.

Botanists from Trinity College Dublin have discovered that "penny-pinching" evergreen species such as Christmas favourites, holly and ivy, are more climate-ready in the face of warming temperatures than deciduous "big-spending" water consumers like birch and oak. As such, they are more likely to prosper in the near future - with this pattern set to be felt more strongly in cooler climates, such as Ireland's.