Earth

RIVERSIDE, Calif. -- A team co-led by a scientist at the University of California, Riverside, has developed a method to study how HIV mutates to escape the immune system in multiple individuals, which could inform HIV vaccine design.

Baltimore, MD--Human activity endangers coral health around the world. A new algal threat is taking advantage of coral's already precarious situation in the Caribbean and making it even harder for reef ecosystems to grow.

Just-published research in Scientific Reports details how an aggressive, golden-brown, crust-like alga is rapidly overgrowing shallow reefs, taking the place of coral that was damaged by extreme storms and exacerbating the damage caused by ocean acidification, disease, pollution, and bleaching.

Magnesium batteries have long been considered a potentially safer and less expensive alternative to lithium-ion batteries, but previous versions have been severely limited in the power they delivered.

The Ecological Society of America (ESA) today released a report entitled "Innovative Finance for Conservation: Roles for Ecologists and Practitioners" that offers guidelines for developing standardized, ethical and effective conservation finance projects.

Swansea University research has provided a new insight into the behaviour of nature's own UV sunscreens when they are exposed to other parts of the light spectrum.

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) provide screening against the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation in living organisms in our oceans and lakes.

These compounds are known to increase in the environment where levels of UV are high. The uniqueness of these compounds has led to interest from the healthcare industry in the development of more natural sunscreen formulations.

Hydrothermally-active submarine volcanoes account for much of Earth's volcanism and are mineral-rich biological hotspots, yet very little is known about the dynamics of microbial diversity in these systems. This week in PNAS, Reysenbach and colleagues, show that at one such volcano, Brothers submarine arc volcano, NE of New Zealand, the geological history and subsurface hydrothermal fluid paths testify to the complexity of microbial composition on the seafloor, and also provide insights into how past and present subsurface processes could be imprinted in the microbial diversity.

For Evie Junior, living with sickle cell disease has been like running a marathon.

"But it's a marathon where as you keep going, the trail gets rockier and then you lose your shoes," the 27-year-old said. "It gets harder as you get older. Things start to fail and all you can think about is how much worse it's going to get down the road."

Elders are more respected in Japan and China and not so much in more individualistic nations like the United States and Germany, say Michigan State University researchers who conclude in a pair of studies that age bias varies among countries and even states.

Warming waters and oxygen depletion in the Red Sea could slow the flow of organic carbon from the surface into the deep ocean where it can be stored, out of reach of the atmosphere. A KAUST team has used an underwater robot to investigate the little-studied mesopelagic, or "twilight," zone, at depths of between 100 and 1000 meters.

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. -- Two genes that are important for the diverse colors and patterns of warbler plumage have evolved through two very different processes, according to a new study led by Penn State researchers. These evolutionary processes could help explain the rapid evolution of these songbirds into so many unique species.

Researchers at ELTE Department of Ethology in Budapest compared how young companion dogs and companion pigs seek human proximity in a novel environment. It turned out that both dogs and pigs stay close to their owner if no other person is present; but if a stranger is also there, only dogs stay near humans, pigs prefer to stay away. The study reveals that living in a human family is not enough for early developing a general human preference in companion animals, species differences weigh in.

A seven-year analysis of almost 10,000 Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) events worldwide over three decades will be published by the HAB Programme of UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

More than 100 scientists in 112 countries contributed to the synthesis and analysis of HAB data gathered from 1985 to 2018 -- a first-ever big data approach to detecting changes in the costly phenomenon's global distribution, frequency, and intensity.

The authors detail the health and economic damages caused by harmful microalgae, including:

November 30, 2020 - Insilico Medicine, a leading company in AI-powered drug discovery, today announced that the paper titled "Molecular Sets (MOSES): A Benchmarking Platform for Molecular Generation Models" was published in Frontiers in Pharmacology.

Plastics in the ocean can release chemicals that cause deformities in sea urchin larvae, new research shows.

Scientists soaked various plastic samples in seawater then removed the plastic and raised sea urchin embryos in the water.

The study, led by the University of Exeter, found that urchins developed a variety of abnormalities, including deformed skeletons and nervous systems.

These abnormalities were caused by chemicals embedded in the plastics leaching out into the water, rather than the plastics themselves.

New research involving the University of East Anglia (UEA) shows how conservation polices can avoid having unintended consequences for local ecosystems and people.

The study investigates the closure of a marine area in the western Pacific Ocean to fishing and the possible impact on offshore fish supply chains and nearshore ecosystems. The landmark Palau National Marine Sanctuary (PNMS) came into force in January and protects 80 per cent of Palau's waters, making it one of the largest marine protected areas in the world.