Earth

When two cars collide at an intersection -- from opposite directions -- the impact is much different than when two cars -- traveling in the same direction -- "bump" into each other. In the laboratory, similar types of collisions can be made to occur between molecules to study chemistry at very low temperatures, or "cold collisions."

A team of scientists led by Arthur Suits at the University of Missouri has developed a new experimental approach to study chemistry using these cold "same direction" molecular collisions. Suits said their approach hasn't been done before.

WOODS HOLE, Mass. - Corals are "part animal, part plant, and part rock - and difficult to figure out, despite being studied for centuries," says Philippe Laissue of University of Essex, a Whitman Scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory.

If the world is to maintain a sustainable economy and fend off the worst effects of climate change, at least one industry will soon have to ramp up dramatically: the mining of metals needed to create a vast infrastructure for renewable power generation, storage, transmission and usage. The problem is, demand for such metals is likely to far outstrip currently both known deposits and the existing technology used to find more ore bodies.

New insight on how four species of seabirds have developed the ability to cruise through both air and water has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.

One of Jonathan Coop's first vivid memories as a child was watching the flames of the 1977 La Mesa Fire in north-central New Mexico. The human-caused fire burned more than 15,000 acres of pine forests in the Bandelier National Monument and areas surrounding the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Infant marsupials and monotremes use a connection between their ear and jaw bones shortly after birth to enable them to drink their mothers' milk, new findings in eLife reveal.

This discovery by researchers at King's College London, UK, provides new insights about early development in mammals, and may help scientists better understand how the bones of the middle ear and jaw evolved in mammals and their predecessors.

CLEVELAND, Ohio (July 1, 2020)--Depression has been shown to be prevalent during menopause, affecting as many as 70% of women transitioning into menopause. A new study not only confirms the high prevalence of depression but also the greatest risk factors for it in postmenopausal women, as well as any relationships with anxiety and fear of death. Study results are published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).

WASHINGTON, June 30, 2020 -- While the use of face masks in public has been widely recommended by public health officials during the current COVID-19 pandemic, there are relatively few specific guidelines pertaining to mask materials and designs. A study from Florida Atlantic University, in the Physics of Fluids, from AIP Publishing, looks to better understand which types are best for controlling respiratory droplets that could contain viruses.

WASHINGTON, June 30, 2020 -- Spiders -- what are they good for? The answer, it turns out, is more than just insect control.

Spider silk is useful for a variety of biomedical applications. It exhibits mechanical properties superior to synthetic fibers for tissue engineering, and it is not toxic or harmful to living cells.

WASHINGTON, June 30, 2020 -- It is well established that the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the COVID-19 disease is transmitted via respiratory droplets that infected people eject when they cough, sneeze or talk. Consequently, much research targets better understanding droplet motion and evaporation to understand transmission more deeply.

Many small regulatory elements, including miRNAs, miRNA binding sites, and cis-acting elements, comprise only 5~24 nucleotides and play important roles in regulating gene expression, transcription and translation, and protein structure, and thus are promising targets for gene function studies and crop improvement.

Roadside hedges take a hit to their health while reducing pollution exposure for humans, a new study from the University of Surrey finds.

According to the European Environmental Agency, air pollution causes 400,000 premature deaths annually. In 2017, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs pinpointed pollution generated by traffic as a major contributor of particulate matter.

By introducing fluorescence protein sensors into live plants, a novel method that allows in planta measurement of NADPH level and NADH/NAD+ ratio in different cell types has been developed. These transgenic lines enable scientists to visualize the dynamic changes of these molecules in different subcellular compartments in real-time, to study photosynthesis and photorespiration.

ATHENS, Ohio (June 30, 2020) - The South Pole has been warming at more than three times the global average over the past 30 years, according to research led by Ohio University professor Ryan Fogt and OHIO alumnus Kyle Clem.

Microplastic pollution in marine environments is concentrated most highly in coastal habitats, especially fjords and estuaries, according to a new review article published in the journal Marine Pollution Bulletin. Deep sea environments generally have much lower microplastic concentrations, although there are hotspots where elevated concentrations of microplastic occur.