Tech

One of the most devastating pathogens that lives inside human cells is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacillus that causes tuberculosis. According to the World Health Organization, 1.5 million people died in 2019 from this disease that generally affects the lungs. The rise of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis strains, which are resistant to many of the most effective anti-tuberculosis drugs, is particularly worrying. In other words, novel drugs to treat tuberculosis are urgently needed.

Tuberculosis bacteria need iron to survive

Movement breaks camouflage, making it risky for anything trying to hide. New research, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B today [1 April] has shown that dynamic features common in many natural habitats, such as moving light patterns, can reduce being located when moving.
Dynamic illumination is particularly common in coral reefs, where patterns known as 'water caustics' play chaotically in the shallows. Researchers from the University of Bristol and the University of Queensland carried out behavioural experiments on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

In synchrotron radiation sources such as BESSY II, electron bunches orbit the storage ring at almost the speed of light. They are forced to emit extremely bright light pulses with special properties by periodic magnetic structures (undulators).

Every picture tells a story... none more so than this detailed visualisation of a strain of the norovirus.

Created from 13,000 separate images taken by an electron microscope, it reveals in rich detail the structure of the virus. It shows bump-like protrusions on the outside of the virus capsid, the protein shell that holds the genome of the virus.

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - As the coronavirus pandemic spreads across the U.S. and the world, Purdue University scientists are working to move solutions to diagnose and treat the virus to the marketplace as soon as possible.

The Purdue Research Foundation Office of Technology Commercialization is working with innovators from across the university to patent and license technologies that focus on the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of treating COVID-19.

Among the technologies being developed:

Infants who were started on solid foods at or before three months of age showed changes in the levels of gut bacteria and bacterial byproducts, called short-chain fatty acids, measured in their stool samples, according to a study from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

WASHINGTON--Liraglutide 3.0 mg, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity to help adults with obesity manage their weight, appears to help adolescents too, according to an industry-sponsored randomized controlled trial. The study was accepted for presentation at ENDO 2020, the Endocrine Society's annual meeting, and will be published in a supplemental issue of the Journal of the Endocrine Society.

If humans ever hope to colonize Mars, the settlers will need to manufacture on-planet a huge range of organic compounds, from fuels to drugs, that are too expensive to ship from Earth.

University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) chemists have a plan for that.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heart condition that causes an irregular and abnormally fast heart rate, potentially leading to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications. While the causes of AF are unknown, it affects around one million people in the UK with cases predicted to rise at a great cost to the NHS.

Currently, AF is commonly diagnosed using an electrocardiogram (ECG), but this can only be done during an episode, so complementary means of diagnosis are needed.

WASHINGTON, March 31, 2020 -- Using the same technology that allows high-frequency signals to travel on regular phone lines, researchers tested sending extremely high-frequency, 200 GHz signals through a pair of copper wires. The result is a link that can move data at rates of terabits per second, significantly faster than currently available channels.

There is an ongoing battle between cancer cells and p53, the protein known as 'the guardian of the genome', and a study conducted at the University of Trento identified a number of factors that influence the outcome of this battle and therefore the effectiveness of cancer treatments.

A new study from a University of Michigan researcher and colleagues at three institutions demonstrates the potential for using existing networks of buried optical fibers as an inexpensive observatory for monitoring and studying earthquakes.

The study provides new evidence that the same optical fibers that deliver high-speed internet and HD video to our homes could one day double as seismic sensors.

COLUMBUS, Ohio - A team of cybersecurity researchers has discovered that a large number of cell phone applications contain hardcoded secrets allowing others to access private data or block content provided by users.

The study's findings: that the apps on mobile phones might have hidden or harmful behaviors about which end users know little to nothing, said Zhiqiang Lin, an associate professor of computer science and engineering at The Ohio State University and senior author of the study.

Amyloid plaque formation directly causes brain tissue loss in animals, but a drug called lithium reduces the life-shortening effects of this loss, shows a study published today in eLife.

Patients with Alzheimer's disease experience progressive memory loss and loss of brain matter over time. This study provides new details about what happens in the brain in Alzheimer's disease and suggests a potential strategy to slow it.

Fast communication between our brain cells - or neurotransmission as it is called - is hugely important for our brain to work properly. Some of the messengers involved in this form of communication are neuropeptides, which are chemicals produced in the brain.

Some of these peptides are involved in causing the feeling of pain. In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen show how the neuropeptide Big Dynorphin binds to a receptor involved in sending pain signals around the brain.