Tech

Scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the University of California San Diego report antibody evidence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that points to enterovirus (EV) infection as a cause for acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a disease responsible for partially paralyzing more than 560 children in the United States since 2014. Results of the study appear in the journal mBio.

BELLINGHAM, Washington, USA and CARDIFF, UK - A new paper in Advanced Photonics, an open-access journal co-published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, and Chinese Laser Press (CLP), demonstrates distinct improvements to the inference and generalization performance of diffractive optical neural networks.

A new study analyzing samples from patients with and without acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) provides additional evidence for an association between the rare but often serious condition that causes muscle weakness and paralysis, and infection with non-polio enteroviruses. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, funded the research, which was conducted by investigators at Columbia University's Center for Infection and Immunity and investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The molecular machinery used by bacteria to resist chemicals designed to kill them could also help produce precursors for a new generation of nylon and other polymers, according to new research by scientists from Australia and the UK.

"Resistance to artificial antiseptics appears to be a lucky accident for the bacteria, and it could also be useful for humans," says Professor Ian Paulsen of Australia's Macquarie University, one of the leaders of the research group.

New York, NY--August 12, 2019--A novel neck brace, which supports the neck during its natural motion, was designed by Columbia engineers. This is the first device shown to dramatically assist patients suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in holding their heads and actively supporting them during range of motion. This advance would result in improved quality of life for patients, not only in improving eye contact during conversation, but also in facilitating the use of eyes as a joystick to control movements on a computer, much as scientist Stephen Hawkins famously did.

The debate can finally be put to rest--Lil Nas X's record-setting, chart-topping hit "Old Town Road" is indeed country. But it's also a little rock 'n roll. And when you analyze the lyrics and chords together, it's straight-up pop.

At least, that's according to an artificial intelligence tool developed by USC computer science PhD student Timothy Greer. Greer's method automatically predicts music genres by analyzing how lyrics and chords interact with one another throughout the song.

The new-generation sequencing technology has ushered in a new era in medicine, making it easier to identify a sequence of nucleotides in the DNA or a sequence of amino acids in the proteins of a specific individual and use this information for both diagnosis and treatment. Minute alterations in these sequences, mutations can be indicative of a minor disorder and, sometimes, a grave disease.

Aided by a high-powered brain scanner and a 3D printer, NIH researchers peered inside the brains of hundreds of multiple sclerosis patients and found that dark rimmed spots representing ongoing, "smoldering" inflammation, called chronic active lesions, may be a hallmark of more aggressive and disabling forms of the disease.

An international team of scientists, including a professor of chemistry from the University of Bristol, has worked out a way to improve energy storage devices called supercapacitors, by designing a new class of detergents chemically related to laxatives.

Their paper, published today in the journal Nature Materials, explains why these detergents, called ionic liquids, are better electrolytes than current materials and can improve supercapacitors.

BOSTON - An NIH-funded study published in JAMA Pediatrics has shown pediatricians can help parents quit smoking.

Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed the thinnest optical device in the world--a waveguide that is three layers of atoms thin.

The work is a proof of concept for scaling down optical devices to sizes that are orders of magnitude smaller than today's devices. It could lead to the development of higher density, higher capacity photonic chips. Researchers published their findings Aug. 12 in Nature Nanotechnology.

A new study in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry takes a harder look at the effects a common anti-inflammatory medication and its degradation products have on amphibians. There have been many studies that review the toxicity of naproxen, a common over-the-counter pain reliever, but none until now that have reviewed the effects it or its degradation products might have on amphibians.

Drones, smartphones and sensors could provide a lifeline to the world's growing elderly population at risk of falls, helping to cut global hospital costs.

A new system has been designed by a team of researchers from Iraq and the University of South Australia to remotely monitor elderly people, detecting abnormalities in their heart rate and temperature which can lead to falls, and provide urgent first aid via a drone if a fall occurs.

Cybersecurity researchers have discovered vulnerabilities in the backend systems that feed content and advertising to smartphone applications through a network of cloud-based servers that most users probably don't even know exists.

Robots need to know the reason why they are doing a job if they are to effectively and safely work alongside people in the near future. In simple terms, this means machines need to understand motivethe way humans do, and not just perform tasks blindly, without context.

According to a new article by the National Centre for Nuclear Robotics, based at the University of Birmingham, this could herald a profound change for the world of robotics, but one that is necessary.