Children born to women who underwent gastric bypass surgery before becoming pregnant had a lower risk of major birth defects than children born to women who had severe obesity at the start of their pregnancy. That's according to a matched cohort study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet and Örebro University published in the scientific journal JAMA. The findings indicate that weight-loss and improved blood sugar control could reduce the risk of major birth defects and ought to lessen long-standing concerns that weight-loss surgery could increase this risk.

Bottom Line: Researchers used national registry data in Sweden to examine the risk of major birth defects in infants born to women who had gastric bypass surgery compared with infants born to women who didn't have the surgery but were similar based on other factors including maternal body mass index and diabetes. The analysis included 2,921 women who had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and 30,573 women who didn't for comparison. Infants born to women who had gastric bypass surgery had lower risk of major birth defects.

WASHINGTON, D.C., October 15, 2019 -- The entry probe of the Galileo mission to Jupiter entered the planet's atmosphere in 1995 in fiery fashion. As the probe descended from Mach 50 to Mach 1 and generated enough heat to cause plasma reactions on its surface, it relayed data about the burning of its heat shield that differed from the effects predicted in fluid dynamics models. New work examines what might have caused such a discrepancy.

In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered.

Unlike conventional computers, the processing in quantum-based machines is noisy, which produces error rates dramatically higher than those of silicon-based computers. So quantum operations are repeated thousands of times to make the correct answer stands out statistically from all the wrong ones.

Australian researchers have fabricated a self-assembled, carbon-based nanofilm where the charge state (ie, electronically neutral or positive) can be controlled at the level of individual molecules, on a length scale of around one nanometre.

Molecular self-assembly on a metal results in a high-density, 2D, organic quantum-dot array with electric-field-controllable charge state, with the organic molecules used as 'nano-sized building blocks' in fabrication of functional nanomaterials.

Achieved densities are an order of magnitude larger than conventional inorganic systems.

New research shows that the more a baby weighs at birth relative to its gestational age the higher the risk they will suffer from childhood food allergy or eczema, although not hay fever.

Dr Kathy Gatford from the University of Adelaide's Robinson Research Institute led a team of scientists that carried out a systematic review assessing past studies in humans. After screening more than 15,000 studies, they identified 42 that included data on more than two million allergy sufferers.

The risk of febrile convulsions increases with the child's fever, and approx. four per cent of Danish children suffer from febrile convulsions. A study from the Danish National Centre for Register-based Research and the Department of Clinical Medicine at Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital now shows a association between repeated febrile convulsions and the risk of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression.

Research led by Drs. Miguel Burguillos (University of Seville, Spain) and Miguel Branco (Queen Mary University of London, UK), has revealed new findings about mechanisms regulating brain inflammation which open a new pathway in the field of neuroinflammation. This is important because in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s diseases, where there is no effective treatment yet, it is considered that microglia play a key role in their pathology and progression.

Each year, heart attacks kill almost 10 million people in the world, and more than 6 million die from stroke. A heart attack is caused by a clot that blocks the artery blood flow. Unirrigated tissues are deprived from the oxygen that is carried by the blood. Under these conditions, the affected tissues undergo a rapid necrosis. But why?

Chemists from Trinity College Dublin have created a new material that self-assembles into 2D networks in a predictable and reproducible manner. The material has a suite of new properties, which means it may have numerous applications - although it will take time and significant exploration to determine how it may best be used.

WASHINGTON, D.C., October 15, 2019 - Hydrogen-containing substances are important for many industries, but scientists have struggled to obtain detailed images to understand the element's behavior. In Review of Scientific Instruments, from AIP Publishing, researchers demonstrate the quantification of hydrogen for different states of water -- i.e., liquid, frozen and supercooled -- for applications to eco-friendly fuel cells.

WASHINGTON, D.C., October 15, 2019 -- "Polymers are very, very useful materials when it comes to modern applications."

Mohan Edirisinghe leads a team of researchers at University College London studying the fabrication of polymeric nanofibers and microfibers -- very thin fibers made up of polymers. The group describes a study comparing fabrication techniques for these fibers without the use of electric fields in Applied Physics Reviews, from AIP Publishing.

How dangerous is travel in the United States? It depends on how you frame the question. If it's risk per kilometer, the U.S. has 6.71 deaths per billion vehicle kilometers of travel compared to the United Kingdom, which has just 3.56 deaths per billion vehicle kilometers. This makes vehicular travel in the U.S. about 88.6 percent more dangerous than travel in the U.K. If it's risk per year of life, the U.S. has 10.25 deaths per 100,000 people whereas the U.K. has just 2.86 - a risk level of 257 percent, which is much higher than risk-per-kilometer.

14th of October, Hong Kong - Insilico Medicine, a biotechnology company developing an end-to-end drug discovery pipeline utilizing next-generation artificial intelligence, is proud to present its paper "A Prior of a Googol Gaussians: a Tensor Ring Induced Prior for Generative Models" at the 33rd Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS).

Wrapping a building in a fire-protective blanket is a viable way of protecting it against wildfires, finds the first study to scientifically assesses this method of defense.