The optical vortex plays an increasingly important role in optical information processing. As an information carrier, it improves the capacity of channels and offers an independent aspect for analysis--different from polarization, intensity, phase, and path. A new degree of freedom for encoding and encrypting optical information may be provided via nonlinear optics, using vortex beams known as azimuthons, which carry an orbital angular momentum and can now be made to exhibit a mutual conversion pattern known as Rabi oscillation.

A team of medical researchers has found that in human milk, pasteurisation inactivates the virus that causes COVID-19, confirming milk bank processes have been safe throughout the pandemic, and will remain safe going forward, too.

The study - published this month in the Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health - was a partnership between UNSW and a multidisciplinary team from Australian Red Cross Lifeblood Milk.

According to a 2018 United Nations report, more than 25,000 individuals are officially reported to be victims of trafficking each year. The true number is likely much larger. While scientists have tried to help pinpoint outfits participating in sex trafficking, few scientific studies have looked of how the digital infrastructure behind the online sex market operates.

BROOKLYN, New York, Monday, August 10, 2020 - The proliferation and miniaturization of electronics in devices, wearables medical implants and other applications has made technologies for blocking electromagnetic interference (EMI) especially important, while making their implementation more challenging. While EMI can cause disruptions in communication in critical applications, resulting in potentially disastrous consequences, traditional EMI shields require large thicknesses to be effective, hampering design flexibility.

Enzymes used by bacteria to break down mucus in the gut could provide a useful biomarker for intestinal diseases, according to new research published in Nature Communications.

Researchers at the University of Birmingham and Newcastle University have successfully identified and characterised one of the key enzymes involved in this process. They demonstrated how the enzyme enables bacteria to break down and feed off sugars in the layers of mucus lining the gut.

Aurora, Colo. (Aug. 11, 2020) - Greater rates of Colorado's children are going to the pediatric emergency department as a result of dog bites during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a recently published commentary article in the Journal of Pediatrics.

The Republic of Korea, like other countries with a rapidly ageing population, is facing increasing numbers of patients with dementia, of which Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most representative type. Unfortunately, AD has no complete cure yet; but, some treatments have been proven to delay its progression. Of course, this means that timely diagnosis while the symptoms are still mild is essential to maximize a patient's quality of life.

Reducing the viscosity of heavy oils for extraction is one of the most important research foci in contemporary petroleum science. KFU has long been concentrated on exactly this topic, more specifically, thermal treatment methods. The latest publication tackles the use of Fe, Co, Ni-based catalysts for this purpose.

"The catalysts showed good results under 300 degrees C in reducing viscosity, decreasing the ratio tars and asphaltenes, eliminating sulfur and nitrogen, reducing polyaromatic compounds, etc.," says Junior Research Associate Suweid Munir Abdo Mohammed.

Inbreeding can reduce cooperation in banded mongooses according to a recent study by researchers.

A team from Swansea University, University of Bielefeld and University of Exeter studied inbreeding and cooperative care in banded mongooses - an African mammal which lives in colonies with a complex social structure.

In the 1930s it was proposed that for mammals to evolve complex cooperative societies similar to those seen In bees and wasps, they would have to become highly inbred so that all colony members were genetically related.

Scientists have revealed a way to eradicate parasitic worms by stopping them from using alternative metabolism pathways provided by bacteria that live within them, according to new findings published today in eLife.

The study has identified three potential drugs that are active against the parasitic worm Brugia malayi (B. malayi), a leading cause of disability in the developing world.

Using highly complex analytical techniques, a group of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin were able to observe in detail how different metals are released from joint implants and accumulate in the surrounding bone tissue. Findings showed a steady release of metals from various implant components. In contrast to previous assumptions, this was not related to the degree of mechanical stress involved. The researchers' findings, which have been published in Advanced Science*, will help to optimize the materials used in implants and enhance their safety.

TROY, N.Y. -- In order to earn certification in general surgery, residents in the United States need to demonstrate proficiency in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic program (FLS), a test that requires manipulation of laparoscopic tools within a physical training unit. Central to that assessment is a quantitative score, known as the FLS score, which is manually calculated using a formula that is time-consuming and labor-intensive.

CLEMSON, South Carolina -- When you think of surfing and Brazil, the first image that comes to mind is probably warm waves crashing on a white sand beach, not a cloud of gas swirling 65 miles above the Earth. But the latter is exactly what was found by Clemson University researcher Rafael Mesquita, a native of Brazil.

Proteins in human cells do not function in isolation and their interactions with other proteins define their cellular functions. Therefore, detailed understanding of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is the key for deciphering regulation of cellular networks and pathways, in both health and disease.

LA JOLLA--(August 10, 2020) While your skeleton helps your body to move, fine skeleton-like filaments within your cells likewise help cellular structures to move. Now, Salk researchers have developed a new imaging method that lets them monitor a small subset of these filaments, called actin.