Heavens

DURHAM, N.H.-- Scientists at the University of New Hampshire have unlocked one of the mysteries of how particles from flares on the sun accumulate at early stages in the energization of hazardous radiation that is harmful to astronauts, satellites and electronic equipment in space. Using data obtained by NASA's Parker Solar Probe (PSP), researchers observed one of the largest events so far during the mission.

SAN ANTONIO -- Feb. 3, 2020 -- Using data from NASA's Parker Solar Probe (PSP), a team led by Southwest Research Institute identified low-energy particles lurking near the Sun that likely originated from solar wind interactions well beyond Earth orbit. PSP is venturing closer to the Sun than any previous probe, carrying hardware SwRI helped develop. Scientists are probing the enigmatic features of the Sun to answer many questions, including how to protect space travelers and technology from the radiation associated with solar events.

Recently discovered ripples of spacetime called gravitational waves could contain evidence to prove the theory that life survived the Big Bang because of a phase transition that allowed neutrino particles to reshuffle matter and anti-matter, explains a new study by an international team of researchers.

According to the hypothesis, axionic dark matter, provoking structural rearrangement in compact stars with a strong magnetic field, can protect them from a catastrophic loss of magnetic energy, but at the same time allows such objects to rotate abnormally fast.

A century after it was first theorized, researchers have detected the effects of Lense-Thirring precession - an effect of relativistic frame-dragging - in the motion of a distant binary star system, a new study reports. The results of the twenty-year study confirm a prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity. When a massive object rotates, general relativity predicts that it pulls the surrounding spacetime around with it, a phenomenon known as frame-dragging. This phenomenon causes precession of the orbital motion of gravitationally bound objects.

An international team of astrophysicists led by Australian Professor Matthew Bailes, from the ARC Centre of Excellence of Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), has shown exciting new evidence for 'frame-dragging'--how the spinning of a celestial body twists space and time--after tracking the orbit of an exotic stellar pair for almost two decades. The data, which is further evidence for Einstein's theory of General Relativity, is published today (31 January 2020) in the prestigious journal, Science.

This release has been removed upon request of the submitter because of a duplicate submission error. The release can be found at: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-01/nsf-nns012420.php?site_version=e4

Analysis led by University of Warwick shows 'severe' space super-storms occurred 42 years out of 150 and 'great' super-storms occurred in 6 years out of 150

Super-storms can disrupt electronics, aviation and satellite systems and communications

Provides insight into the scale of the largest super-storm in recorded history

An unusual chunk in a meteorite may contain a surprising bit of space history, based on new research from Washington University in St. Louis.

Presolar grains -- tiny bits of solid interstellar material formed before the sun was born -- are sometimes found in primitive meteorites. But a new analysis reveals evidence of presolar grains in part of a meteorite where they are not expected to be found.

Providing answers about its curious supreme brightness, researchers say the superluminous supernova SN 2006gy - one of the brightest stellar explosions ever studied, and discovered in 2006 - gained its exceptional luster when a normal Type Ia explosion smashed into a surrounding shell of ejected stellar material. Superluminous supernovae (SNe) are as much as 100 times more luminous than normal SNe, far more than can be explained by standard astrophysical mechanisms.

Swedish and Japanese researchers have, after ten years, found an explanation to the peculiar emission lines seen in one of the brightest supernovae ever observed - SN 2006gy. At the same time they found an explanation for how the supernova arose.

Maunakea, Hawaii - An international team of astronomers from the University of California San Diego, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), and the University of Cambridge have detected large amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere of one of the oldest and most elementally depleted stars known - a "primitive star" scientists call J0815+4729.

BOZEMAN -- A new search led by Montana State University has revealed more than a dozen massive black holes in dwarf galaxies that were previously considered too small to host them, and surprised scientists with their location within the galaxies.

Stellar black holes form when massive stars end their life in a dramatic collapse. Observations have shown that stellar black holes typically have masses of about ten times that of the Sun, in accordance with the theory of stellar evolution. Recently, a Chinese team of astronomers claimed to have discovered a black hole as massive as 70 solar masses, which, if confirmed, would severely challenge the current view of stellar evolution.

Astrophysics, Galaxies: The most distant dying galaxy discovered so far, more massive than our Milky Way -- with more than a trillion stars -- has revealed that the 'cores' of these systems had formed already 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, about 1 billion years earlier than previous measurements revealed. The discovery will add to our knowledge on the formation of the Universe more generally, and may cause the computer models astronomers use, one of the most fundamental tools, to be revised.