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Among Spotted Hyenas, Social Ties Are Inherited

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

Social networks among animals are critical to various aspects of their lives, including reproductive success and survival, and could even teach us more about human relationships.

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Association Of Remdesivir Treatment With Survival, Length Of Hospital Stay Among US Veterans Hospitalized With COVID-19

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

What The Study Did: In this observational study using data from the Veterans Health Administration for 2,344 U.S. veterans hospitalized with COVID-19, remdesivir treatment was associated with prolonged hospitalization but wasn't associated with improved survival.

Authors: Michael E. Ohl, M.D., M.S.P.H., of the Carver College of Medicine at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, is the corresponding author.

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Black, Latinx Community Perspectives On COVID-19 Mitigation Behaviors, Testing, Vaccines

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

What The Study Did: This community-engaged qualitative study describing Black and Latinx participants' experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic found that fear, illness and loss experienced during the pandemic motivated information seeking and mitigation behaviors, while vaccine skepticism was high, as was the demand for clearer information. Among Black participants, racism and medical experimentation were associated with distrust.

Authors: Manuel E. Jimenez, M.D., M.S., of the Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Brunswick, New Jersey, is the corresponding author.

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Body Mass Index As A Risk Factor For Diabetes Varies Throughout The World

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

BOSTON - The unprecedented increase in overweight and obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has led to an alarming rise in diabetes in these regions. Of the estimated 463 million people with diabetes worldwide, 79% live in LMICs.

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ED-administered High-dose Buprenorphine May Enhance Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

High-dose buprenorphine therapy, provided under emergency department care, is safe and well tolerated in people with opioid use disorder experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) through the Helping to End Addiction Long-term Initiative, or the NIH HEAL Initiative.

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Study Finds Adolescent Girls And Young Women In Africa Will Use HIV Prevention Products

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

Adolescent girls and young women can and will use HIV prevention products with consistency, according to interim results of a study of two different methods: daily use of the antiretroviral (ARV) tablet Truvada® as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and the monthly dapivirine vaginal ring, a new HIV prevention product currently under regulatory review in several countries.

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Study Shows Strong Association Between Perceived Risk, Availability And Past-year Cannabis Use

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

Combined perceptions of the risk and availability of cannabis influence the risk of cannabis use more than perceived risk and perceived availability alone, according to a new study at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Researchers observed that those who perceived cannabis as low-risk and available were more likely to report using the drug in the past year and almost daily compared to those individuals who perceived cannabis as high-risk and unavailable. This is the first study to consider the joint effects of perceived risk and perceived availability.

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Identification Of Over 200 Long COVID Symptoms Prompts Call For UK Screening Programme

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

Patients who experience long COVID have reported more than 200 symptoms across 10 organ systems*, in the largest international study of 'long-haulers' to date, led by UCL scientists together with a patient-led research collaborative.

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Discrimination And Safety Concerns Barriers To Accessing Healthy Food For Food-insecure Young Adults

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

Philadelphia, July 19, 2021 - University of Minnesota School of Public Health researchers recently completed a study to determine how food-insecure young (emerging) adults (18-29 years of age) adapted their eating and child feeding behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers also sought to identify barriers to food access and opportunities to improve local access to resources for emerging adults.

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Preparing For The Next Pandemic: Harmonize Vaccinations In Canada

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

To prepare for the next pandemic and provide a coordinated approach to vaccination across the country, Canada should create Canadian Immunization Services based on the Canadian Blood Services model, authors propose in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

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Three Key Habitat-building Corals Face Worrying Future Due To Climate Crisis

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

The climate crisis will lead to changes in distribution and habitat loss of stony corals in the tropical Atlantic, shows a new study published by the open access publisher Frontiers. The loss of such coral species could have devastating consequences for the marine ecosystems they inhabit. The results of the study highlight an urgent need for coral reef management in the Atlantic.

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A Bug's Life: Millimeter-tall Mountains On Neutron Stars

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

New models of neutron stars show that their tallest mountains may be only fractions of millimetres high, due to the huge gravity on the ultra-dense objects. The research is presented today at the National Astronomy Meeting 2021.

Neutron stars are some of the densest objects in the Universe: they weigh about as much as the Sun, yet measure only around 10km across, similar in size to a large city.

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Primary Care Payment Model, Telemedicine Use For Medicare Advantage During Pandemic

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

What The Study Did: The association between primary care payment models and the use of telemedicine for Medicare Advantage enrollees during the COVID-19 pandemic was examined in this study.

Authors: Brian W. Powers, M.D., M.B.A., of Humana Inc. in Louisville, Kentucky, is the corresponding author.

To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/

(doi:10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.1597)

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Researchers Surprised To Find Bacterial Parasites Behind Rise Of 'super Bugs'

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

PITTSBURGH, July 16, 2021 - For the first time ever, researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discovered that phages--tiny viruses that attack bacteria--are key to initiating rapid bacterial evolution leading to the emergence of treatment-resistant "superbugs." The findings were published today in Science Advances.

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Dapagliflozin Found Effective And Safe In Adults With Advanced Kidney Disease

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

Highlights

The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced kidney, cardiovascular, and mortality risks in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, similar to benefits seen in individuals with normal or moderately impaired kidney function.

Rates of serious side effects were similar in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease who received dapagliflozin or placebo.

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New Score Measures Health-related Quality Of Life In Patients With Kidney Failure

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

Highlights

The results of a new study support the validity of a score that considers various patient-reported outcome measures and preferences for assessing health-related quality of life in individuals with kidney failure.

The score is calculated from assessments of cognitive function, depression, fatigue, pain interference, physical functioning, sleep disturbance, and ability to participate in social roles.

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Emergent Magnetic Monopoles Isolated Using Quantum-annealing Computer

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

LOS ALAMOS, N.M., July 15, 2021-- Using a D-Wave quantum-annealing computer as a testbed, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have shown that it is possible to isolate so-called emergent magnetic monopoles, a class of quasiparticles, creating a new approach to developing "materials by design."

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Science Snapshots From Berkeley Lab

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

Berkeley Lab Pushes Its Energy-Saving Windows into the Market

By Julie Chao

Windows make up 7% of the envelope area of a home but can account for 47% of the envelope heat loss. High-performance windows thus represent a significant opportunity for consumers to be more comfortable and save money - and help reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions while doing so.

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Benzodiazepines, 'z-drugs' Increase Death Risk When Taken With Opioids

Jan 11 2024 - 14:01

A new study by Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers of more the 400,000 Medicare patients taking medications for insomnia found that the risk of death is increased when either benzodiazepines or "z-drugs" are taken with opioids.

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