Migration of colonic lamina propria fibroblasts (CLPF) plays an important role during the progression of fibrosis and fistulae in Crohn's disease. Transforming growth factor- beta (TGF- beta) is involved in the regulation of cell migration, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix deposition, and immune responses.

University of Michigan survey experts working with the American Association for Public Opinion Research have identified several reasons polls picked the wrong winners in the 2008 Presidential Primary.

The study is believed to be the most comprehensive analysis ever conducted of presidential primary polls.