Culture

The advantages of volunteering reported by adults aged 55 and older are largely dependent upon the characteristics of the activities in which they participate, according to a recent article appearing in The Gerontologist (Vol. 49, No. 1). The lead author is Nancy Morrow-Howell, PhD, of Washington University in St. Louis.

A new University of British Columbia study finds that job applicants with English names have a greater chance of getting interviews than those with Chinese, Indian or Pakistani names.

The study, which sent thousands of resumés to Canadian employers, found those with English names like Jill Wilson or John Martin received interview callbacks 40 per cent more often than identical resumes with names like Sana Khan or Lei Li.

In the debate surrounding violent crimes referred to as "acts of madness" or the like, it is often assumed that the violence is a direct result of the perpetrator's mental illness. Previous research suggests that people with schizophrenia, a major psychotic disorder, are at higher risk for violent behaviour. However, there has been some uncertainty as to the magnitude of this risk increase and if it can really be attributed to the violence itself or to other factors.

p>Dr Sarah Bracking from The University of Manchester says much of the billions of pounds worth of cash described by political leaders as aid are in reality loans, and have little benefit, she says, to the people who need help most of all.

“Over half of what is described as aid goes to the global south in the form of loans for private sector consultancy, technical assistance or works projects and the five richest countries can get up to 90 per cent of the business,“ said Dr Bracking.

Should environmental scientists be advocates for environmental policy? To a wildlife ecologist from Michigan Technological University and an environmental ethicist from Michigan State University, the answer is a resounding yes.

Use of the medication tamsulosin to treat male urination difficulties within two weeks of cataract surgery is associated with an increased risk of serious postoperative ophthalmic adverse events such as retinal detachment or lost lens, according to a study in the May 20 issue of JAMA.

This release is available in http://chinese..org/zh/emb_releases/2009-05/jaaj-saf051509.php">Chinese.

The increased risk of persons with schizophrenia committing violent crime may be largely mediated by co-existing substance abuse problems, according to a study in the May 20 issue of JAMA.

CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--The most comprehensive modeling yet carried out on the likelihood of how much hotter the Earth's climate will get in this century shows that without rapid and massive action, the problem will be about twice as severe as previously estimated six years ago — and could be even worse than that.

SAN FRANCISCO -- Researchers at Mayo Clinic compared two popular television shows, CSI and CSI: Miami, to actual U.S. homicide data, and discovered clear differences between media portrayals of violent deaths versus actual murders. This study complements previous research regarding media influences on public health perception. Mayo Clinic researchers present their findings today at the American Psychiatric Association annual meeting in San Francisco.

Have you ever gotten sick of pizza, playing the same computer game, or had a song stuck in your head for so long you never wanted to hear it again? If you have, you may suffer from variety amnesia. In new research, Joseph Redden, professor of marketing at the University of Minnesota's Carlson School of Management, may have found a cure for your satiation blues. "People forget about the abundance of different experiences they have had and tend to focus on the repetition," said Redden.

May 19, 2009 (OAKLAND, Calif.) – An e-mail intervention program is an effective way to significantly improve diet and physical activity by helping people move more, sit less, and make healthier food choices, according to a Kaiser Permanente Division of Research study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

CINCINNATI—University of Cincinnati (UC) cancer and cell biologists have identified a new molecular pathway key to the development of invasive prostate cancers.

In a preclinical study led by Maria Diaz-Meco, PhD, the UC team found that simultaneous inactivation of two particular genes—known as PTEN and Par-4—caused the rapid development of invasive prostate cancer tumors in mice.

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Some federal judges are tossing out civil cases based on their own opinions, a disturbing trend that makes background checks even more important in the search for a new associate justice for the U.S. Supreme Court, a University of Illinois legal expert says.

A study by law professor Suja A. Thomas found that judges improperly dismiss cases based on their own view of evidence because legal standards – which require them to gauge whether evidence is sufficient to sway a reasonable jury – are "fatally flawed."

PHILADELPHIA – May 13, 2009 – Shire plc (LSE: SHP, NASDAQ: SHPGY), the global specialty biopharmaceutical company, today announced that it will present key scientific data on its Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) treatments lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (CII) and investigational non-scheduled guanfacine extended release, at a national scientific meeting of psychiatrists to be held May 16 -21 in San Francisco, CA.

(Boston) - African-American women who were younger at menarche, or the onset of their menstrual periods, were more likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse, according to a new study led by a researcher at Boston University's Slone Epidemiology Center. The results suggest that a history of sexual abuse may increase the risk of early menarche (i.e., onset of menstrual periods before age 12 years).