Brain

Every language has cases in which two or more concepts are expressed by the same word, such as the English word fly, which refers to both the act of flying and to the insect. By comparing patterns in these cases, which linguists call colexifications, across languages, researchers can gain insights into a wide range of issues, including human perception, language evolution, and language contact.

Chemists have found a new use for the waste product of nuclear power - transforming an unused stockpile into a versatile compound which could be used to create valuable commodity chemicals as well as new energy sources.

Depleted uranium (DU) is a radioactive by-product from the process used to create nuclear energy. Many fear the health risks from DU, as it is either stored in expensive facilities or used to manufacture controversial armour-piercing missiles.

(Boston) - Boston researchers have developed a new way to generate groups of intestinal cells that can be used, among others, to make disease models in the lab to test treatments for diseases affecting the gastrointestinal system. Using human induced pluripotent stem cells, this novel approach combined a variety of techniques that enabled the development of three-dimensional groups of intestinal cells called organoids in vitro, which can expand disease treatment testing in the lab using human cells.

Experts in the Japanese phenomena of hikikomori say the condition of extreme social isolation is more widespread than previously acknowledged, and it deserves a clear and consistent definition to improve treatment across the globe.

In an article published in the February issue of the journal World Psychiatry, experts cite a lack of broad clinical understanding of the condition.

The ongoing social unrest in Hong Kong may be affecting the mental health of the general adult population--potentially leading to substantial increases in demand for mental and psychosocial support services, according to a 10-year observational study published in The Lancet.

Teenagers in the US simply don't get enough shut eye. The consequences of this epidemic of sleep deprivation are extensive and include increasing rates of anxiety and depression among adolescents, as well as suicidal thoughts and actions. Sleep-deprived teens are more likely to be involved in car crashes, and run a higher risk of injury during sports-related activities.

When you see someone being unfair, disloyal or uncaring toward others, do you feel a sense of moral outrage in the form of a twisting stomach, pounding heart or flushing face? And is it possible that your body's response depends on your political affiliation?

Researchers with the University of Southern California Brain and Creativity Institute (BCI) set out to examine how and where emotions associated with violations of moral concerns are experienced in the body, and whether political orientation plays a role.

ARLINGTON, Va., January 8, 2020 -- Numerous studies have shown that monitoring physical activity promotes better health - from reducing body mass index to watching for signs of hypertension, for example. A new study suggests step counters could play yet another role: predicting outcomes for people undergoing chemoradiation therapy for lung cancer.

CATONSVILLE, MD, January 8, 2020 - Live chat tools allow for communication between sellers and buyers. They are popular instruments for e-commerce sites that don't have the advantage of face-to-face communication that brick-and-mortar stores do. New research in the INFORMS journal Information Systems Research says these live chats can actually increase sales and boost profits.

URBANA, Ill. - Affirmative action policies (AAP) such as quota systems based on racial or socio-economic criteria are often recommended as a way to increase enrollment of underrepresented students in higher education. But those policies can be controversial and their results are sometimes questioned.

Each encounter is like a single shard in a mosaic that, taken as a whole, presents a picture of amazing optimism despite myriad challenges.

Alexandra M. Sims, M.D., FAAP, a General Academics Pediatric Fellow at Children's National Hospital, captured the anonymized vignettes in her journal, using writing as a way to help process both the unbounded joy and sobering trauma experienced by her young patients.

TORONTO, ON - Anxiety disorders are the most common type of psychiatric illness, yet researchers know very little about factors associated with recovery. A new University of Toronto study investigated three levels of recovery in a large, representative sample of more than 2,000 Canadians with a history of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

In the largest genetic study on anxiety to date, VA researchers found new evidence on the underlying biological causes of the disorder. The study used VA Million Veteran Program (MVP) data to identify regions on the human genome related to anxiety risk. The findings could lead to new understanding and treatment of the condition, which affects 1 in 10 Americans.

Irvine, Calif. -- Young people's view of their family's social status was more strongly associated with their mental health and readiness for future education and work than how much money, education or occupational prestige their parents have, according to new research led by the University of California, Irvine.

CHICAGO--January 6, 2020--Despite the prestige of becoming a physician, 80 percent of medical students report a low sense of personal achievement, according to a new study in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.

Researchers surveyed 385 first- through fourth-year medical students to assess their levels of burnout, a psychological syndrome resulting from prolonged exposure to stressful work. Study authors say burnout has three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low sense of personal achievement.