Body

New research sheds light on the biological events by which stem cells in the bone marrow develop into the broad variety of cells that circulate in the blood. The findings may help improve the success of bone marrow transplants and may lead to better treatments for life-threatening blood diseases.

Water is no passive spectator of biological processes; it is an active participant. Protein folding is thus a self-organized process in which the actions of the solvent play a key role. So far, the emphasis in studies of protein folding processes has been on observation of the protein backbone and its side chains. Researchers led by Martin Gruebele and Martina Havenith have now been able to detect changes in the protein–water network during protein folding in real time.

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Researchers have harnessed the sensitivity of days-old fish embryos to create a tool capable of detecting a range of harmful chemicals.

The intelligence community often monitors global trends in scientific and technological research to identify advances that could affect national security. Few intelligence analysts, however, have the scientific training needed to recognize significant advances in esoteric fields, such as cognitive neuroscience. A new report from the National Research Council, EMERGING COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES, identifies the areas of neuroscience research that analysts should focus on, and describes how advances in these areas could impact national security.

Halle/Saale, Potsdam, August 2008 - One in five of Germany's plant species could lose parts of its current range, a study by scientists at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) and the French Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine reveals. Species distributions will be rearranged as a result of climate change; this could have a dramatic impact particularly on the vegetation in south-western and eastern Germany.

SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles – August 12, 2008 -University of California, San Diego today announced a new method for accurately capturing the shape and appearance of a person's hairstyle. The results closely match the real hairstyles and can be used for animation.

Sexual dysfunction is not an inevitable part of aging, but it is strongly related a number of factors, such as mental and physical health, demographics and lifetime experiences, many of which are interrelated, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Chicago.

The study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, found that a history of sexually transmitted disease also has an impact on sexual health later in life. People who had an STD are also more likely to have had sexual experiences over their lifetimes that included more risks and multiple sex partners.

Cincinnati, OH, August 13, 2008—Dairy is recognized as a key component of a healthy, balanced diet. However, until recently it was unclear how long-term dairy intake contributes to the many aspects of bone health in children, including bone density, bone mineral content, and bone area. A new study soon to be published in The Journal of Pediatrics investigates the effect of childhood dairy intake on adolescent bone health.

Poor physical control and coordination in childhood are linked to an increased risk of obesity in later life, suggests a study published on BMJ.com today.

The research contributes to a growing body of evidence on the link between poorer cognitive function in childhood and obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults.

The findings are based on 11 042 individuals, who are part of the ongoing National Child Development Study in Great Britain, which began in 1958.

COLUMBUS, Ohio – Researchers testing the long-held theory that therapeutic massage can speed recovery after a sports injury have found early scientific evidence of the healing effects of massage.

The scientists have determined that immediate cyclic compression of muscles after intense exercise reduced swelling and muscle damage in a study using animals.

Boston, MA -- India is home to the third-largest number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the world and, as in the U.S. and many African nations, the rate of infection among women continues to rise faster than that among men. In a new study, researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have found that married Indian women who experienced physical and sexual abuse at the hands of their husbands were approximately four times more likely to become infected with HIV than married women who were not abused.

A school-based intervention for children in communities affected by political violence in Indonesia reduced post-traumatic stress symptoms and helped maintain hope, but did not reduce traumatic stress-related symptoms, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms or functional impairment, according to a study in the August 13 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on violence and human rights.

In Nepal, former child soldiers display greater severity of mental health problems, such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, compared with children who were not forced into military service, according to a study in the August 13 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on violence and human rights.

Men and women who experienced sexual violence while fighting in Liberian civil wars report higher rates of symptoms of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and thoughts of suicide than non-combatants or other former combatants who were not exposed to sexual violence, according to a study in the August 13 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on violence and human rights.

ALEXANDRIA, VA, August 12, 2008 — The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) concurs with findings from a recent study published in Spine (Volume 33, Number 16) demonstrating that active physical therapy for patients with acute low back pain is associated with better clinical outcomes, decreased use of prescription medications, MRI and epidural injections, and lower healthcare costs than passive physical therapy.