Body

August 2008 -- According to a study conducted at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, health risk behaviors such as smoking and obesity are associated with lower awareness of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), which could lead to a lower likelihood of undergoing actual prostate cancer screening. Although previous studies have explored predictors of PSA test awareness, this is the first research to focus on health risk behaviors, such as smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and excessive alcohol consumption.

BUFFALO, N.Y. -- Young men with type 2 diabetes have significantly low levels of testosterone, endocrinologists at the University at Buffalo have found -- a condition that could have a critical effect on their quality of life and on their ability to father children.

This study follows research published earlier by these scientists reporting that one-third of middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes have low testosterone levels, requiring treatment for erectile dysfunction.

Conservation zones are in the wrong place to protect vulnerable coral reefs from the effects of global warming, an international team of scientists warned today.

Now the team – led jointly by Newcastle University and the Wildlife Conservation Society, New York – say that urgent action is needed to prevent the collapse of this important marine ecosystem.

The research, published today in the journal PLoS ONE, is the largest study of its kind to have been carried out, covering 66 sites across seven countries and spanning over a decade in the Indian Ocean.

MAYWOOD, Ill. – An estimated 60,000 Americans are walking around with time bombs in their chests called thoracic aortic aneurysms.

At any time, their main chest artery could suddenly burst open, causing massive internal bleeding that is almost always fatal.

It's possible to repair the defect before the artery bursts, but traditional surgery is highly invasive. The operation typically requires an 18-inch incision, a week or two in the hospital and three to six months to recover. There are several major risks, including stroke and paralysis.

Latest research into dual-purpose contraceptives and non-hormonal contraception will be presented tomorrow at a major scientific conference in Melbourne.

Laureate Professor John Aitken* from the University of Newcastle and Dr Eva Dimitriadisfrom Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research will address the annual scientificconference of the Society for Reproductive Biology (SRB).

Conservation zones are in the wrong place to protect vulnerable coral reefs from the effects of global warming, an international team of scientists warned today.

Now the team – led jointly by Newcastle University and the Wildlife Conservation Society, New York – say that urgent action is needed to prevent the collapse of this important marine ecosystem.

The research, published today in the journal PLoS ONE, is the largest study of its kind to have been carried out, covering 66 sites across seven countries and spanning over a decade in the Indian Ocean.

Scientists have found novel patterns of ultrasonic vocalizations in a genetic mouse model of autism, adding a unique element to the available mouse behaviors that capture components of the human disease, and representing a new step towards identifying causes and better treatments.

Misinterpreted fragments of leg bones, teeth and brow ridges found in Palau appear to be an archaeologist's undoing, according to researchers at three institutions. They say that the so-called dwarfs of these Micronesian islands actually were modern, normal-sized hunters and gatherers.

A new bioinformatics tool is capable of identifying and correcting abnormal, incomplete and mispredicted protein annotations in public databases. The MisPred tool, described today in the open access journal BMC Bioinformatics, currently uses five principles to identify suspect proteins that are likely to be abnormal or mispredicted.

Taking 1000mg of a specific olive leaf extract (EFLA®943) can lower cholesterol and lower blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension (high blood pressure). These findings came from a 'Twins' trial, in which different treatments were given to identical twins. By doing this, researchers could increase the power of their data by eliminating some of the uncertainties caused by genetic variations between individual people.

The research is published in the latest edition of Phytotherapy Research.

GENEVA, Switzerland – Many people hold mistaken beliefs about what causes cancer, tending to inflate the threat from environmental factors that have relatively little impact while minimizing the hazards of behaviours well established as cancer risk factors, according to the first global survey on the topic.

The survey, conducted by Roy Morgan Research and Gallup International on behalf of the International Union of Against Cancer (UICC), identified key areas where misconceptions could be addressed and where lives could be saved.

Boston, MA--Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have found that one fifth of both U.S.-manufactured and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines purchased via the Internet contain lead, mercury or arsenic. These findings appear in the August 27th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

Individuals with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for other cancers, according to a study published in the August 26 online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Previous studies have documented that people who have had nonmelanoma skin cancer were at increased risk for developing melanoma, but it is less well-established whether they were also at risk for cancers that do not involve the skin.

The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) was associated with a reduced risk of basal cell or squamous cell skin cancers in U.S. veterans, researchers report in the August 26 online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Novel Trial Design Aims to Speed Drug Development

Researchers propose a novel multi-arm trial design that can test several therapies simultaneously and could speed drug development in cancer.

Scientists have gained important insights into the biological underpinnings of cancer, but this knowledge has not led to a jump in the number of therapies approved for clinical use. One possible reason for the slower than expected progress is the time required for clinical testing with current trial designs.