Body

The traditional diet of people in Mediterranean countries has been linked to numerous health benefits and has been shown to cut the risk of obesity. Although popular elsewhere, this healthy eating pattern is relatively new to the USA. New research being presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Vienna, Austria (23-26 May) uses geospatial techniques to identify which US states have the greatest adherence to this Mediterranean-style of eating.

New research from various cities in the world presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity in Vienna, Austria (23-26 May) demonstrate that if current trends continue, almost a quarter (22%) of the people in the world will be obese by 2045 (up from 14% in 2017), and one in eight (12%) will have type 2 diabetes (up from 9% in 2017).

Young people who watch one extra junk-food advert a week (over the average of six) consume an additional 350 calories in foods high in salt, sugar, and fat (HFSS) every week (18,000 each year), according to the largest study of its kind in the UK involving over 3,300 teens aged 11 to 19 years.

Successful weight loss maintainers have different behavioural and physiological responses to food than people with obesity and their lean counterparts, according to new research by the University of Birmingham and the University of Amsterdam being presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Vienna, Austria (23-26 May).

The findings indicate that a reduced physiological response to highly palatable foods such as pizza, and reduced sensitivity towards "winning" foods, may help explain why some individuals are able to successfully lose weight in the long-term.

Even healthy weight boys have become less fit over the past 20 years, according to new research being presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Vienna, Austria (23-26 May). The study, which tested the aerobic fitness of normal and obese 11-year-old boys from Malaga, Spain in 1996 and again in 2016, highlights the need for a shift in focus towards child fitness and away from just their weight.

Despite a fall in prescription numbers for low-value treatments, the overall cost of prescribing these items in English primary care has risen, according to new research published by the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. NHS England has identified low-value treatments deemed to be ineffective, over-priced and of low clinical value, in order to increase value from the £17.4bn NHS medicines bill.

Patients with low-back pain are better off seeing a physical therapist first, according to a study of 150,000 insurance claims.

The study, published in Health Services Research, found that those who saw a physical therapist at the first point of care had an 89 percent lower probability of receiving an opioid prescription, a 28 percent lower probability of having advanced imaging services, and a 15 percent lower probability of an emergency department visit - but a 19 percent higher probability of hospitalization.

Researchers have identified a new inherited neurodevelopmental disease that causes slow growth, seizures and learning difficulties in humans.

Writing in the journal eLife, the team reveals that this disease is caused by a recessive mutation in CAMK2A - a gene that is well known for its role in regulating learning and memory in animals. The findings suggest that dysfunctional CAMK2 genes may contribute to other neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and autism, opening up potential new avenues for treating these conditions.

"Clinical guidelines, including the Global Initiative for Asthma, state that there is no role for antibiotics in asthma exacerbations unless there is strong evidence of lung infection," said lead study author Mihaela S. Stefan, MD, PhD, a research scientist at the Institute for Healthcare Delivery and Population Science and associate professor at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Springfield.

Compared with fiscal austerity measures currently being implemented in Brazil, the maintenance of social protection could result in a reduction in childhood mortality by 8.6% in 2030, according to simulations published this week in PLOS Medicine by Davide Rasella of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil, and colleagues.