Tech

A Korean research team, affiliated with UNIST has presented a new type of underwater adhesives that are tougher than the natural biological glues that mussels normally use to adhere to rocks, ships, and larger sea critters. This has attracted much attention as a technology that surpass the limits of conventional chemical-based adhesives that significantly lose adhesion capability when exposed to moisture or when reused.

In his dissertation, Topi Sikanen, a Master of Science (Technology) and Research Scientist at VTT, examined the transport, evaporation and combustion of liquids in large-scale fire incidents. He developed practical models which will help to predict the consequences for nuclear power plants of fires caused by aircraft impacts.

Analyses of airliner impacts became mandatory after terrorists deliberately crashed two aircraft into the World Trade Center twin towers in New York in 2001.

Photons with energy higher than the 'band gap' of the semiconductor absorbing them give rise to what are known as hot electrons. The extra energy in respect to the band gap is lost very fast, as it is converted into heat so it does not contribute to the voltage. University of Groningen Professor of Photophysics and Optoelectronics Maria Antonietta Loi has now found a material in which these hot electrons retain their high energy levels for much longer. This might make it possible to use more of their energy to obtain a higher voltage.

Shale gas is one of least sustainable options for producing electricity, according to new research from The University of Manchester.

Taking into account a range of sustainability aspects and assuming that they are all equally important, the research found that shale gas overall ranks seventh out of nine electricity options. The study also found that:

Shale gas ranks between the fourth and eighth relative to other electricity options

To become the most sustainable option, large improvements would be needed

CAMBRIDGE, MA - MONDAY, JAN.15, 2018 - Nature has produced exquisite composite materials--wood, bone, teeth, and shells, for example--that combine light weight and density with desirable mechanical properties such as stiffness, strength and damage tolerance.

Since ancient civilizations first combined straw and mud to form bricks, people have fabricated engineered composites of increasing performance and complexity. But reproducing the exceptional mechanical properties and complex microstructures found in nature has been challenging.

A team of researchers has developed an ultrasound-based system that can non-invasively and remotely control genetic processes in live immune T cells so that they recognize and kill cancer cells.

There is a critical need to non-invasively and remotely manipulate cells at a distance, particularly for translational applications in animals and humans, researchers said.

One of the most important and fraught processes in the human body is inflammation. Inflammatory responses to injury or disease are crucial for recruiting the immune system to help the body heal, but inflammation can also cause an increase in the production of thrombin, which can lead to dangerous blood clots and other conditions.

1. Risk for some cancers may be determined before birth
Normal tissue BRCA1 methylation associated with risk for high-grade ovarian cancer

Abstract: http://annals.org/aim/article/doi/10.7326/M17-0101

Editorial: http://annals.org/aim/article/doi/10.7326/M17-3340

URLs go live when the embargo lifts

An international team, led by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (MPI-SHH), Harvard University and the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), has used ancient DNA and a new data processing program to identify the possible cause of a colonial-era epidemic in Mexico. Many large-scale epidemics spread through the New World during the 16th century but their biological causes are difficult to determine based on symptoms described in contemporaneous historical accounts.

You don't have to be perfectly organized to pull off a wave, according to University of Chicago scientists.

Using a set of gyroscopes linked together, physicists explored the behavior of a material whose structure is arranged randomly, instead of an orderly lattice. They found they could set off one-way ripples around the edges, much like spectators in a sports arena--a "topological wave," characteristic of a particularly unusual state of matter.