Earth

What does the general public know about climate engineering, and what do they think about what they know? These were questions asked by researchers from Linköping University, together with researchers from Japan, the US and New Zealand.

Scientists from RUDN University and the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv have found a way to produce aromatic rings in organic compounds in three stages. These stages proceed successively in one-pot conditions and at room temperature. Now analogues of hormones, steroids, some sugars, terpenes and other complex organic substances can be synthesized faster and at softer conditions. The paper was published in Tetrahedron Letters.

A new study by researchers at Loma Linda University Health has found that eating nuts on a regular basis strengthens brainwave frequencies associated with cognition, healing, learning, memory and other key brain functions. An abstract of the study -- which was presented in the nutrition section of the Experimental Biology 2017 meetings in San Diego, California, and published in the FASEB Journal.

Not only are immediate friendships an important aspect of our life, but so are our extended acquaintances and friends' of friends connections, according to new Oxford University research. The findings shed light on how social networks can evolve, by showing that complex social patterns observed across the animal kingdom may be simpler than they appear.

These relationships are known as 'indirect social connections', and show where each individual is positioned within the overall social network.

Baltimore, Md., Nov. 14, 2017 - With a limited number of lungs available, deciding who gets a transplant can be a matter of life or death. New research from the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) suggests that the system for choosing transplant recipients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may underestimate how long a person might survive without a lung transplant and therefore, may mislead clinicians.

(Millbrook, NY) Traditional toxicity testing underestimates the risk that pharmaceutical and personal care product pollution poses to freshwater ecosystems. Criteria that account for ecological disruption - not just organism death - are needed to protect surface waters, which are under pressure from a growing population and escalating synthetic chemical use. So reports a new study published this week in Elementa.

LAWRENCE -- Do researchers need to "hit the brakes a little" before declaring a species is new to science?

A recent University of Kansas study published in the peer-reviewed journal Molecular Ecology demonstrates the misuse and abuse of methods scientists commonly use to place boundaries between different species, especially so-called "cryptic" species, could lead to the overestimation of species diversity.

Male and female grey seal pups show distinct behavioural differences as they learn to forage in the early stages of their independence, according to new research which scientists believe could be crucial to the future protection of their habitat.

The pups are abandoned by their mothers when they are just three weeks old, with many of them never having ventured into the sea, let alone sourced their own food.

A team of scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) working in collaboration with Tohoku University, Tokyo City University and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency has proposed a novel approach to tackle the problem of radioactive waste disposal.

The new method, published in Scientific Reports, could dramatically reduce the effective half-life (an indicator of the amount of time it takes to bring radioactive materials down to safe levels) of long-lived fission products[1] (LLFPs) from hundreds of thousands of years to within a hundred years.

Mongoose mothers boost their pups' survival chances by evicting rival females from their social groups, new research shows.

Banded mongooses live in highly cooperative societies, but violence between and within groups - including battles to evict some members - is common.

Dominant females often spark fights to force out other females, and University of Exeter scientists have now proved a long-held theory that this helps their own pups.