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Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC researchers have identified cells that may play a key role in some forms of steroid-resistant asthma, a complication of the condition that makes treatment even more challenging.

The identification of a lineage of cells known as T Helper Type 17 (Th17) may help scientists in the development of new treatments that lead to better control of asthma, according to the study's senior author, Jay K. Kolls, MD, chief of the Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Allergy and Immunology at Children's Hospital.

To analyze the clinical significance of BAMBI, authors studied its expression in CRC using immunohistochemical staining. They show that BAMBI overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and predicts tumor recurrence and cancer-related death in CRC. BAMBI may be usable as a target for diagnostic and antibody medicine.

Biliary cast syndrome is a syndrome which is characterised by the presence of casts causing obstruction of the biliary tree, thus leading to biliary infection, hepatocyte damage secondary to bile stasis and ductal damage, all contributing to cholangiopathy. The development of total biliary cast is very uncommon, especially in non-transplant patients. The etiology of biliary cast formation in these cases is uncertain but several factors are believed to play a role, including periods of fasting, hemolysis, cholangitis and recent surgery.

IMGP is characterized by inflammatory granulation tissue in the lamina propria, proliferation of smooth muscle, and hyperplastic glands with variable cystic change. Only a small number of cases have been reported and the pathogenesis and natural history remain unclear.

Gallstone disease is a very common gastrointestinal disorder: in fact it has been documented that more than 14% of adults are, or have been, affected by this disease. Therefore, gallstones are a major public health problem, and this disorder is one of the most common and costly of all digestive disease, at least in the Wester World.

BRMS is an uncommon cause of recurrent jaundice and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in children. Because its presentation may mimic that of a choledochal cyst, the correct diagnosis is frequently made intraoperatively at a planned choledochal cystectomy. However, identification of this entity prior to surgery is important because early surgery may carry excess morbidity and mortality.

The etiology of UC is believed that an immune abnormality may be involved in its development. Steroid has long been the second line therapy for the induction to remission in UC, if remission cannot be achieved by salazosulfapyridine or mesalazine treatment. However, steroid administration can occur various side effects. LCAP has been reported to be effective for steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent patients with UC; however, the data of LCAP for steroid-naïve patient with UC is limited.

The process of tumor invasion and metastasis is associated with alterations in the functions of several adhesion molecules. In general, tumor cells lose their capacity for normal adherence, which facilitates their detachment from their site of origin. alpha-catenin links E-cadherin to the actin cytoskeleton via its association with either beta- or gamma-catenin. Reduced alpha-catenin expression was associated with tumor invasion and metastases in colorectal cancer (CRC).

Establishment of human gastric cancer nude mouse transplantation models has undergone three representative stages: subcutaneous transplantation of cell suspension, gastric wall seeding of cell suspension, and intra-gastric wall transplantation of histologically intact tissue, of which the fresh tissue orthotopic transplantation model has two types: the "suture method"and the "gastric bursa method".But the "suture method"or the "gastric bursa method" transplantation has many practical difficulties and disadvantages in establishing the model; for example, the tumor tissue is easy to fall off

About one third of the world's population has latent tuberculosis and roughly 9 million cases of active tuberculosis emerge annually resulting in 2-3million deaths. Most new cases occur in the most populated nations like India and China. Combination chemotherapy containing Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RMP), Pyrazinamide (PZA) with or without ethambutol for initial 2 months followed by a continuation phase of 4-6 months of Isoniazid and Rifampicin is the preferred regimen for successful treatment and for preventing acquired resistance.

It is well known that local recurrence is the most important prognostic factor of rectal carcinoma. However, even after undergoing radical resection of primary tumors and lymph nodes, about 4%-50% of patients with rectal carcinoma were reportedly with local recurrence. Clinicopathologically, the risk factors of local recurrence remain unclear heretofore. Therefore, a group from Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital has recently explored the risk factors of local recurrence after curative resection in patients with middle and lower rectal carcinoma.

From the end of the 1970s to the late 1990s there was a significant reduction in the incidence of hip and distal forearm fractures among Oslo women in the early phase after menopause. Part of this decline can be explained by the large increase in the use of hormone replacement therapy after menopause in the same period, a new study shows.

The study is a collaboration between the University of Oslo, Aker University Hospital and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.

Half of reduction in fractures may be due to hormone replacement therapy

SALT LAKE CITY—Researchers have discovered a connection between genes that could hold the key to a longer, healthier life.

Increasing general practice opening hours would improve the opportunity for assessment and urgent referral to specialist care of patients with a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, which could prevent over 500 recurrent strokes a year in England alone, concludes a study published on bmj.com today.

Skin infections are common in pet lizards and can lead to fatal organ disease and septicaemia. Infections are particularly risky in lizards that are bred in captivity for release into the wild, as they can spread into the wild population. The cause of these diseases has been unclear but now researchers in Belgium have discovered a new bacterium responsible for dermatitis in desert lizards.