Brain

Many of the current US Federal and State dyslexia laws should be scrapped as they ignore scientific evidence and privilege some poor readers at the expense of huge numbers of others, according to a leading expert in reading disability.

Professor Julian Elliott from Durham University in the UK says valuable resources are put into expensive and time-consuming tests to diagnose children which are not only often highly questionable, but also do not point to forms of learning support that are different from what should be provided to any other poor reader.

A theoretical framework explaining the risk of rare events causing major disruptions in complex networks, such as a blackout in a power grid, has been proposed by a mathematician at Queen Mary University of London.

Rare events can abruptly dismantle a network with much more severe consequences than usual and understanding their probability is essential in reducing the chances of them happening.

CLEMSON, South Carolina - As a general rule of thumb, if there is a puzzling phenomenon occurring somewhere deep in outer space, a black hole is often the culprit behind it.

MINNEAPOLIS - People who are frequently exposed to diesel exhaust while on the job may have a higher risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and that risk may increase with greater exposure, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 70th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, April 21 to 27, 2018.

Anxiety can help people to remember things, a study from the University of Waterloo has found.

The study of 80 undergraduate students found that manageable levels of anxiety actually aided people in being able to recall the details of events.

It also found that when anxiety levels got too high or descended into fear, it could lead to the colouring of memories where people begin to associate otherwise neutral elements of an experience to the negative context.

February 23, 2018 - At most US maternity units, women in labor are put on nil per os (NPO) status--they're not allowed to eat or drink anything, except ice chips. But new nursing research questions that policy, showing no increase in risks for women who are allowed to eat and drink during labor.

Troy, N.Y. --The world of health care is changing rapidly and there is increased interest in the role that light and lighting can play in improving health outcomes for patients and providing healthy work environments for staff, according to many researchers. Recently, the Center for Lighting Enabled Systems & Applications (LESA) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, together with the Illumination Engineering Society (IES), sponsored a workshop to explore pathways to define and promote the adoption of lighting systems specifically for health-care environments.

Legalizing medical marijuana has not increased recreational use of the substance among U.S. adolescents, according to a new study conducted at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. The findings are published online in the journal Addiction.

Environmental scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have led an international collaboration to improve satellite observations of tropical forests.

Responsible for nearly one-third of the world's terrestrial photosynthesis, tropical forests are a critical biome for examining climate change and its potential impacts across the Earth.

Ann Arbor, February 20, 2018 - Suicide is a major national concern in the US. In 2016, it was the second leading cause of death in adolescents aged 12-18 years, with over 1,900 individuals in this age group dying by suicide. Researchers have now identified sexual orientation discordance - sexual contact that is inconsistent with the individual's sexual orientation - as a potential risk factor for adolescent suicidal ideation and/or attempts.