Brain

COLUMBIA, Mo. - Hurricane Harvey is the most recent natural disaster that has caused damage and destruction across many communities. When disasters strike an entire community, they do not affect all community members equally, and victims of domestic violence are often particularly vulnerable. Researchers at the University of Missouri have now identified a framework that can help victims of domestic violence before, during and after disaster events.

New research, led by the University of Southampton and involving a team of international scientists, suggests that an extreme global warming event 56 million years ago was driven by massive CO2 emissions from volcanoes, during the formation of the North Atlantic Ocean.

The new study, that has been conducted in 32 archipelago bays along the Baltic Sea coast shows that underwater plants can contribute to a better water quality, thus improving their own living environment. The water becomes clearer when the plants take up nutrients and in that way out-compete phytoplankton.

- Dense plant communities such as seaweeds and pondweeds also slow down the water movement and cause sediment particles to sink to the bottom, which also makes the water clearer, says the PhD candidate Åsa Nilsson Austin.

Good if the plants are retained

Often when we make a decision, we calculate its "expected value," by multiplying the value of something (how much we want or need it) with the probability that we might be able to obtain it, a concept first introduced by 17th-century mathematician Blaise Pascal.

Now, research conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published August 30, 2017, in the journal Neuron is showing for the first time in monkeys which parts of the brain are involved in the two-pronged decision-making process that determines this expected value.

CHICAGO - Often spending their days hunched over phones, tablets or computers and their free time at spin class or playing sports, millennials are the next generation poised to experience chronic pain. Even at their young age, millennials say acute and chronic pain are already interfering with their quality of life.

Otherwise healthy people who experience hallucinations or delusions are more likely to have later suicidal thoughts or attempts, an international study has found.

The University of Queensland-led research found that having a psychotic experience doubled the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviours.

UQ Queensland Brain Institute researcher Professor John McGrath said children were at even greater risk.

"The risk of suicidal thoughts was five or six times higher in children under 12 who had experienced psychosis," Professor McGrath said.

Researchers from the Higher School of Economics and the Stanford Graduate School of Business have conducted a study on tournaments using the playoff system, which is one of the most popular forms of sporting competitions. In the playoff system, two teams play one another in each match, and the winner advances to the next stage of the tournament, while the loser is eliminated.

Children who live full time with one parent are more likely to feel stressed than children in shared custody situations. The benefit holds regardless of the level of conflict between the parents or between parent and child. These are the results of a new study from Stockholm University's Demography Unit.

EAST LANSING, Mich. - Parents and siblings of children with limited speech who took an innovative training program created by a Michigan State University scholar significantly improved their ability to communicate with the special needs youth.

Now, MSU research provides the first scientific evidence that the online training can improve communication in families with children with complex communication challenges. The findings are published in the journals Communication Disorders Quarterly and Infants & Young Children.

Excluding children from school may lead to long- term psychiatric problems and psychological distress, a study of thousands of children has shown.

Research by the University of Exeter, published in the journal Psychological Medicine found that a new onset mental disorder may be a consequence of exclusion from school.

The study, also found that - separately - poor mental health can lead to exclusion from school.