Brain

DURHAM, N.C. -- Boy or girl? For those who want to influence their baby's sex, superstition and folk wisdom offer no shortage of advice whose effectiveness is questionable at best -- from what to eat to when to make love. But some animals have a technique backed by scientific proof: In turtles and other reptiles, whether an egg hatches male or female depends on the temperature of its nest.

The phenomenon was first discovered in reptiles more than 50 years ago, but until now the molecular details were a mystery.

Teachers who antagonize their students by belittling them, showing favoritism, or criticizing their contributions can damage their learning potential, a new study warns.

Investigating the influence of teacher 'misbehavior' on student learning, a team of communication experts set up a teaching experiment in which almost 500 undergraduate students watched a video of a lecture.

Earth's magnetic field provides an invisible but crucial barrier that protects Earth from the solar wind--a stream of charged particles launched from the sun's outer layers. The protective properties of the magnetic field can fail due to a process known as magnetic reconnection, which occurs when two opposing magnetic field lines break and reconnect with each other, dissipating massive amounts of energy and accelerating particles that threaten air traffic and satellite communication systems.

CLEVELAND, Ohio (May 9, 2018)--Sex shouldn't hurt at any age, yet 75% of postmenopausal women report vaginal dryness, and up to 40% report pain with intercourse. A new study reports that vaginal estradiol tablets just might be what's needed to relieve vulvovaginal problems and improve overall quality of life. Study results are published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).

Scientists have shone new light on how the human brain uses past experiences and generalizes them to future events, helping us safely navigate the world around us, a study in eLife reveals.

Our ability to 'generalize' is an important survival technique, but over-generalizing from bad events could explain why some people fear and then avoid scenarios that are not actually dangerous. This over-avoidance has been identified as a significant factor in anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, chronic pain and depression.

COLUMBUS, Ohio - By federal law passed in 1975, children with intellectual disabilities are supposed to spend as much time as possible in general education classrooms.

But a new study suggests that progress toward that goal has stalled.

Findings showed that over the past 40 years, 55 to 73 percent of students with intellectual disabilities spend most or all of the school day in self-contained classrooms or schools and not with their peers without disabilities.

Different types of maternal homework assistance have a different impact on the child's way of completing school assignments in grades 2 to 4 of elementary school, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland and the University of Jyväskylä. Although all homework assistance presumably aims at helping the child, not all types of homework assistance lead to equally positive outcomes.

The institutions that partook in the project are Allameh Tabataba'i University, Payame Noor University, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Financial University, and Kazan Federal University. A paper called "The Impact of Technology Acquisition & Exploitation on Organizational Innovation and Organizational Performance in Knowledge-Intensive Organizations" appeared in Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education.

Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are a key component of the President's Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention Plan and considered a critical tool for reducing prescription opioid-related illness and death. The results of a study just conducted at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and University of California, Davis, show there is insufficient evidence to confirm whether implementing these programs actually increases or decreases overdoses. The findings are published online in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Bethesda, Md. (May 3, 2018)--Sympathetic nerve activity to skeletal muscle blood vessels--a function of the nervous system that helps regulate blood pressure--increases during physiological and mental stress in people with chronic anxiety, a new study finds. Over time, this response may increase the risk of high blood pressure and heart disease, although the study did not test this specifically.